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Protolanguage in ontogeny and phylogeny

Combining deixis and representation

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Abstract:

We approach the issue of holophrasis versus compositionality in the emergence of protolanguage by analyzing the earliest combinatorial constructions in child, bonobo, and chimpanzee: messages consisting of one symbol combined with one gesture. Based on evidence from apes learning an interspecies visual communication system and children acquiring a first language, we conclude that the potential to combine two different kinds of semiotic element — deictic and representational — was fundamental to the protolanguage forming the foundation for the earliest human language. This is a form of compositionality, in that each communicative element stands for a single semantic element. The conclusion that human protolanguage was exclusively holophrastic — containing a proposition in a single word — emerges only if one considers the symbol alone, without taking into account the gesture as a second element comprising the total message.

Keywords: ANIMAL LANGUAGE; BONOBO; CHILD LANGUAGE; CHIMPANZEE; EVOLUTION OF COMMUNICATION; GESTURE; HOLOPHRASE; SINGLE-WORD UTTERANCES; SYMBOLIC COMBINATION; TWO-WORD UTTERANCES

Document Type: Research Article

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/is.9.1.04gre

Publication date: April 1, 2008

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  • Social Behaviour and Communication in Biological and Artificial Systems
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