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Free Content The effects of smoking on treatment outcome in patients newly diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis

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SETTING: Smoking is reported to be associated with tuberculosis (TB), but its effect on sputum smear conversion remains a matter for discussion.

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of smoking and smoking cessation on treatment outcomes in patients newly diagnosed with TB in Iran.

DESIGN: Newly diagnosed smear-positive TB patients were included in the study. All smokers participated in a smoking cessation programme. Sputum smear status was evaluated at the end of month 2, 5 and 6 of treatment, and smoking status was evaluated at the end of month 2. Differences in smear conversion rates were compared between the three groups, i.e., non-smokers, smokers and quitters.

RESULTS: A total of 183 smokers and 151 non-smokers were included. When smoking cessation was assessed after 2 months, 42.6% (78/183) of the smokers were found to have quit. The cure rate at the end of 6 months, precisely compatible with the conversion rate, was significantly higher among non-smokers (P = 0.004) and quitters at 2 months (P = 0.049) than among persisting smokers (83.4%, 80.8% and 67.6%, respectively).

CONCLUSION: Cure rates in patients newly diagnosed with pulmonary TB were higher in non-smokers and quitters at 2 months than in smokers. Smoking cessation advice should be included in TB control programmes.
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Keywords: TB; cessation; conversion; smoking; sputum smear

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 2: Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 3: Tobacco Prevention and Control Research Centre, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran 4: Division of Pharmacology and Pathophysiology Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands 5: Clinical Tuberculosis and Epidemiology Research Center, NRITLD, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 6: Safety Promotion and Injury Prevention Research Centre, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 7: Mycobacteriology Research Center, Biostatistics Unit, NRITLD, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

Publication date: 01 March 2017

More about this publication?
  • The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease publishes articles on all aspects of lung health, including public health-related issues such as training programmes, cost-benefit analysis, legislation, epidemiology, intervention studies and health systems research. The IJTLD is dedicated to the continuing education of physicians and health personnel and the dissemination of information on tuberculosis and lung health world-wide.

    Certain IJTLD articles are selected for translation into French, Spanish, Chinese or Russian. They are available on the Union website

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