Cost-effectiveness of novel first-line treatment regimens for tuberculosis
Abstract:OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of novel first-line treatment regimens for tuberculosis (TB).
DESIGN: Using decision analysis, we projected the costs and effectiveness, from the health care perspective, of treating a patient cohort in the public sector for active TB without known or suspected resistance to first-line drugs. We compared standard (6-month) treatment to hypothetical regimens of equal efficacy, higher cost and shorter duration.
RESULTS: For every 100 TB patients treated, replacing standard treatment with shorter-course regimens would avert an estimated 2–4 failures/relapses, 0.2–0.4 deaths and 8–14 disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), or 6–11% of all DALYs suffered. We identified three primary determinants of cost-effectiveness: drug price, continuation phase treatment delivery costs and deaths averted through fewer relapses. In a high treatment cost scenario (similar to Brazil), averted delivery costs outweighed higher drug costs, making novel regimens cost-saving. In a low treatment cost scenario (similar to the Philippines), a 4-month regimen with a drug price of $1/day cost $66 per patient, or $840 per DALY averted, and became cost-saving if the drug price dropped below $0.37/day.
CONCLUSION: Although they avert a small proportion of total DALYs, novel, shorter-course first-line regimens for TB are likely to be cost-effective or cost-saving in most settings.
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: 1: Department of Health Policy and Management, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA 2: Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA 3: Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA; Center for Tuberculosis Research, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
Publication date: May 1, 2013
The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease publishes articles on all aspects of lung health, including public health-related issues such as training programmes, cost-benefit analysis, legislation, epidemiology, intervention studies and health systems research. The IJTLD is dedicated to the continuing education of physicians and health personnel and the dissemination of information on tuberculosis and lung health world-wide.
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