Household income, sex and respiratory mortality in São Paulo, Brazil, 1996–2010
Abstract:SETTING: Respiratory mortality rates are declining in several countries, including Brazil; however, the effect of socio-economic indicators and sex is unclear.
OBJECTIVE: To identify differences in mortality trends according to income and sex in the city of São Paulo, Brazil.
DESIGN: We performed a time-trend analysis of all respiratory diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung cancer and tuberculosis, using Joinpoint regression comparing high, middle and low household income levels from 1996 to 2010.
RESULTS: The annual per cent change (APC) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) for death rates from all respiratory disease in men in high-income areas was −1.1 (95%CI −2.7 to 0.5) in 1996–2002 and −4.3 (95%CI −5.9 to −2.8) in 2003–2009. In middle- and low-income areas, the decline was respectively −1.5 (95%CI −2.2 to −0.7) and −1.4 (95%CI −1.9 to −0.8). For women, the APC declined in high-income (−1.0, 95%CI −1.9 to −0.2) and low-income areas (0.8, 95%CI −1.3 to −0.2), but not in middle-income areas (−0.5, 95%CI −1.4 to 0.3) from 1996 to 2010.
CONCLUSION: Death rates due to COPD and all respiratory disease declined more consistently in men from high-income areas. Mortality due to lung cancer decreased in men, but increased in women in middle- and low-income areas.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: December 1, 2012
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