Free Content Epidemiological impact of mass tuberculosis screening: a 2-year follow-up after a national prevalence survey

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Abstract:

OBJECTIVE: To assess the epidemiological impact of mass tuberculosis (TB) screening in the community and the prognosis of bacteriologically negative individuals with abnormal findings on chest radiography (CXR).

METHODS: A follow-up study consisting of two parts—a register match of notified TB cases with 22 160 participants in a national TB prevalence survey, and a repeat medical examination for the subjects of a prevalence survey with abnormal findings on CXR—was conducted 2 years after the prevalence survey in Cambodia.

RESULTS: Thirty-four cases with new smear-positive TB were detected by register match, giving a standardised notification ratio of 0.38 (95%CI 0.27–0.52). An additional seven new smear-positive TB cases and 93 new smear-negative, culture-positive TB cases were detected by medical examination. The incidence rates of bacteriologically positive TB were 8.5% per year (95%CI 6.3–11.2) in cases with a CXR suggestive of active TB and 2.9% per year (95%CI 2.2–3.7) in those with a CXR with other abnormalities.

CONCLUSIONS: Detection and treatment of smear-negative, culture-positive TB cases as well as smear-positive TB cases was associated with a rapid reduction in subsequent incidence of new smear-positive TB. Sputum culture-negative individuals with abnormal CXR findings are at a high risk of disease progression, and require follow-up and potentially preventive treatment.

Keywords: active case finding; chest radiography; epidemiology; reactivation; tuberculosis

Document Type: Research Article

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5588/ijtld.12.0201

Affiliations: 1: Research Institute of Tuberculosis, Japan Anti-Tuberculosis Association, Tokyo, Japan; Japan International Cooperation Agency/National TB Control Project, Phnom Penh, Cambodia 2: Stop TB Department, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland 3: Research Institute of Tuberculosis, Japan Anti-Tuberculosis Association, Tokyo, Japan 4: Japan International Cooperation Agency/National TB Control Project, Phnom Penh, Cambodia 5: National Center for Tuberculosis and Leprosy Control, Phnom Penh, Cambodia

Publication date: December 1, 2012

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  • The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease publishes articles on all aspects of lung health, including public health-related issues such as training programmes, cost-benefit analysis, legislation, epidemiology, intervention studies and health systems research. The IJTLD is dedicated to the continuing education of physicians and health personnel and the dissemination of information on tuberculosis and lung health world-wide.

    Certain IJTLD articles are selected for translation into French, Spanish, Chinese or Russian. They are available on the Union website

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