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Free Content Heterogeneity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains in Makassar, Indonesia

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SETTING: Patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) visiting government TB diagnostic and treatment centres in Makassar City, South Sulawesi Province, Indonesia, from February to October 2008 were included in the study.

OBJECTIVE: To determine the distribution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotypes in Makassar.

DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. Spoligotyping, mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR) and principal genetic grouping (PGG) were used to genotype the M. tuberculosis clinical isolates.

RESULTS: Among 179 isolates derived from pulmonary TB patients, distribution of spoligotypes comprised the East Africa-Indian (30.2%), T (17.9%), H (12.3%) and Beijing (9.5%) lineages. Other lineages found in smaller proportions were the Latin American-Mediterranean, MANU, S and X lineages. Nineteen isolates (10.6%) could not be grouped into any of the reported lineages or shared types. Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis of katG463 and gyrA95 grouped these isolates primarily into PGG1 (9/19, 47%).

CONCLUSION: Only a few genetically identical clustered isolates were identified within the 9-month study period, and most isolates were genetically diverse. Furthermore, 15 spoligopatterns identified in our study have not been reported previously. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive study describing genotypes of M. tuberculosis clinical isolates in Sulawesi.
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Keywords: MIRU-VNTR; genotyping; spoligotyping

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: Novartis-Eijkman-Hasanuddin Clinical Research Initiative, Eijkman Institute for Molecular Biology, Jakarta, Indonesia 2: Novartis-Eijkman-Hasanuddin Clinical Research Initiative, Rumah Sakit Dr Wahidin Sudirohusodo Lantai 2 Laboratory, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia; and Faculty of Medicine, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia 3: Novartis-Eijkman-Hasanuddin Clinical Research Initiative, Rumah Sakit Dr Wahidin Sudirohusodo Lantai 2 Laboratory, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia 4: Faculty of Medicine, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia 5: Department of Microbiology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore City, Singapore 6: Institut de Génétique et Microbiologie Unité mixte de Recherche 8621 Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique–Unités Propres de Service, Orsay, France 7: Novartis Institute for Tropical Diseases, Singapore City, Singapore 8: Novartis Institute for Tropical Diseases, Singapore City, Singapore; and Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore City, Singapore

Publication date: 2012-11-01

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  • The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease publishes articles on all aspects of lung health, including public health-related issues such as training programmes, cost-benefit analysis, legislation, epidemiology, intervention studies and health systems research. The IJTLD is dedicated to the continuing education of physicians and health personnel and the dissemination of information on tuberculosis and lung health world-wide.

    Certain IJTLD articles are selected for translation into French, Spanish, Chinese or Russian. They are available on the Union website

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