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Free Content Clinical failures associated with rpoB mutations in phenotypically occult multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis

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SETTING: Recently, Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates have been described that test phenotypically susceptible to rifampicin (RMP) yet harbour genotypic rpoB mutations.

OBJECTIVE: 1) To investigate the impact of such mutations on clinical outcomes among RMP-susceptible isolates, and 2) to determine the prevalence of rpoB mutations among isoniazid (INH) monoresistant isolates at our laboratory and to describe the association between the presence of these mutations and clinical outcomes.

METHODS: M. tuberculosis isolates were screened for mutations in the rpoB gene using the Cepheid GeneXpert® MTB/RIF assay. Clinical correlation was made by reviewing patient case notes.

RESULTS: Isolates from 94 patients were found to have INH-resistant, RMP-susceptible profiles. Clinical information was available for 52 patients, including three whose isolates had rpoB mutations. All three of these patients had treatment failures, compared to two of 49 patients whose isolates did not have rpoB mutations (P = 0.0005).

DISCUSSION: We demonstrate a significant association between the presence of rpoB gene mutations that are not detected at the current RMP critical concentration and treatment failure. We suggest that a review of the current RMP critical concentration is warranted to ensure that RMP is not used inappropriately for the treatment of phenotypically occult multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.
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Keywords: molecular; resistance; rifampicin; tuberculosis

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: Department of Clinical Microbiology, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand 2: Department of Respiratory Medicine, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand

Publication date: 2012-02-01

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  • The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease publishes articles on all aspects of lung health, including public health-related issues such as training programmes, cost-benefit analysis, legislation, epidemiology, intervention studies and health systems research. The IJTLD is dedicated to the continuing education of physicians and health personnel and the dissemination of information on tuberculosis and lung health world-wide.

    Certain IJTLD articles are selected for translation into French, Spanish, Chinese or Russian. They are available on the Union website

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