Skip to main content

Free Content Second-hand smoke in indoor hospitality venues in Pakistan

Download Article:
(PDF 292.3134765625 kb)
BACKGROUND: Second-hand smoke (SHS) constitutes a significant public health threat in countries with a high smoking prevalence. However, data assessing the quality of indoor air at public venues in Pakistan are limited.

OBJECTIVES: To measure mean concentrations of PM2.5 (particulate matter ≤2.5 microns in diameter), a sensitive indicator of SHS, in hospitality venues in Pakistan.

SETTING AND DESIGN: Data were collected discreetly from 39 indoor venues such as cafes, restaurants and shisha (water-pipe) bars from three major cities in Pakistan. Data were recorded using a portable air quality monitoring device.

RESULTS: The overall mean PM2.5 value for the visited venues was 846 μg/m3 (95%CI 484–1205). The mean PM2.5 value was 101 μg/m3 (95%CI 69–135 μg/m3) for non-smoking venues, 689 μg/m3 (95%CI 241–1138) for cigarette smoking venues and 1745 μg/m3 (95%CI 925–2565) for shisha smoking venues.

CONCLUSION: The significant levels of SHS recorded in this study, in particular from shisha smoking venues, could represent a major public health burden in Pakistan. Appropriate legislation needs to be enforced to protect the health of those exposed to the hazards of second-hand tobacco smoke.
No References
No Citations
No Supplementary Data
No Data/Media
No Metrics

Keywords: Pakistan; second-hand smoke; shisha

Document Type: Regular Paper

Affiliations: 1: Medical College, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan 2: Pulmonology Section, Department of Medicine, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan

Publication date: 2011-07-01

More about this publication?
  • The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease publishes articles on all aspects of lung health, including public health-related issues such as training programmes, cost-benefit analysis, legislation, epidemiology, intervention studies and health systems research. The IJTLD is dedicated to the continuing education of physicians and health personnel and the dissemination of information on tuberculosis and lung health world-wide.

    Certain IJTLD articles are selected for translation into French, Spanish, Chinese or Russian. They are available on the Union website

  • Editorial Board
  • Information for Authors
  • Subscribe to this Title
  • International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
  • Public Health Action
  • Ingenta Connect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites
  • Access Key
  • Free content
  • Partial Free content
  • New content
  • Open access content
  • Partial Open access content
  • Subscribed content
  • Partial Subscribed content
  • Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more