Second-hand smoke in indoor hospitality venues in Pakistan
OBJECTIVES: To measure mean concentrations of PM2.5 (particulate matter ≤2.5 microns in diameter), a sensitive indicator of SHS, in hospitality venues in Pakistan.
SETTING AND DESIGN: Data were collected discreetly from 39 indoor venues such as cafes, restaurants and shisha (water-pipe) bars from three major cities in Pakistan. Data were recorded using a portable air quality monitoring device.
RESULTS: The overall mean PM2.5 value for the visited venues was 846 μg/m3 (95%CI 484–1205). The mean PM2.5 value was 101 μg/m3 (95%CI 69–135 μg/m3) for non-smoking venues, 689 μg/m3 (95%CI 241–1138) for cigarette smoking venues and 1745 μg/m3 (95%CI 925–2565) for shisha smoking venues.
CONCLUSION: The significant levels of SHS recorded in this study, in particular from shisha smoking venues, could represent a major public health burden in Pakistan. Appropriate legislation needs to be enforced to protect the health of those exposed to the hazards of second-hand tobacco smoke.
Document Type: Regular Paper
Publication date: 2011-07-01
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