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Free Content Risk of relapse and failure after retreatment with the Category II regimen in Nepal

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Abstract:

SETTING: Kathmandu Valley urban area, Nepal.

OBJECTIVE: To study the probabilities of failure and relapse and of amplifying drug resistance to isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RMP) after the Category II retreatment regimen.

DESIGN: Cohort study of smear-positive tuberculosis (TB) retreatment cases.

RESULTS: Of 250 cases started on Category II retreatment, 209 were relapse cases; of these, 18 were INH-resistant RMP-susceptible, 18 were INH+RMP-resistant and nine were culture-negative. Of 19 return after interruption cases, two were INH-resistant RMP-susceptible and one was INH+RMP-resistant. Among 22 failures, no case was INH-resistant RMP-susceptible, six were INH+RMP-resistant and 14 were culture-negative. No INH-susceptible RMP-resistant cases were observed. Among 182 INH+RMP-susceptible cases, one failed and four relapsed during follow-up. Two of the five cases became INH+RMP-resistant and the remaining three remained susceptible. Among 20 INH-resistant RMP-susceptible cases, two failed and none relapsed. One of the two became INH+RMP-resistant and the other case remained INH-resistant RMP-susceptible.

DISCUSSION: The proportion of resistance among retreatment cases in Kathmandu Valley was not high. The risk of relapse with amplification of RMP resistance among INH-resistant RMP-susceptible cases on the Category II retreatment regimen was 5% (1/20), and that among INH+RMP-susceptible cases was 1% (2/182).

Keywords: amplification of drug resistance; retreatment regimen; tuberculosis

Document Type: Regular Paper

Affiliations: 1: Research Institute of Tuberculosis, Tokyo, Japan 2: German Nepal Tuberculosis Project, Kathmandu, Nepal

Publication date: November 1, 2010

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  • The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease publishes articles on all aspects of lung health, including public health-related issues such as training programmes, cost-benefit analysis, legislation, epidemiology, intervention studies and health systems research. The IJTLD is dedicated to the continuing education of physicians and health personnel and the dissemination of information on tuberculosis and lung health world-wide.

    Certain IJTLD articles are selected for translation into French, Spanish, Chinese or Russian. They are available on the Union website

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