Risk of relapse and failure after retreatment with the Category II regimen in Nepal
OBJECTIVE: To study the probabilities of failure and relapse and of amplifying drug resistance to isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RMP) after the Category II retreatment regimen.
DESIGN: Cohort study of smear-positive tuberculosis (TB) retreatment cases.
RESULTS: Of 250 cases started on Category II retreatment, 209 were relapse cases; of these, 18 were INH-resistant RMP-susceptible, 18 were INH+RMP-resistant and nine were culture-negative. Of 19 return after interruption cases, two were INH-resistant RMP-susceptible and one was INH+RMP-resistant. Among 22 failures, no case was INH-resistant RMP-susceptible, six were INH+RMP-resistant and 14 were culture-negative. No INH-susceptible RMP-resistant cases were observed. Among 182 INH+RMP-susceptible cases, one failed and four relapsed during follow-up. Two of the five cases became INH+RMP-resistant and the remaining three remained susceptible. Among 20 INH-resistant RMP-susceptible cases, two failed and none relapsed. One of the two became INH+RMP-resistant and the other case remained INH-resistant RMP-susceptible.
DISCUSSION: The proportion of resistance among retreatment cases in Kathmandu Valley was not high. The risk of relapse with amplification of RMP resistance among INH-resistant RMP-susceptible cases on the Category II retreatment regimen was 5% (1/20), and that among INH+RMP-susceptible cases was 1% (2/182).
Document Type: Regular Paper
Publication date: 2010-11-01
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