Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis in children with human immunodeficiency virus in rural South Africa
Abstract:SETTING: Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) has been documented worldwide, but reports of XDR-TB in children are extremely limited.
OBJECTIVE: To report the characteristics of pediatric XDR-TB patients in rural South Africa.
DESIGN: We retrospectively reviewed children with sputum culture-confirmed XDR-TB from Tugela Ferry, South Africa, from January 2006 to December 2007. Demographic, clinical and microbiologic data were abstracted from medical records.
RESULTS: Four children aged 6–8 years with XDR-TB were reviewed. Two had previous histories of TB. All were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected orphans; three received highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) before XDR-TB diagnosis. All had clinical and radiographic improvement and sputum culture conversion while on standardized XDR-TB treatment and HAART. Two tolerated concomitant XDR-TB and HIV treatment well. Two experienced neuropsychiatric side effects related to cycloserine. All have survived >24 months and all were cured. Prior to XDR-TB diagnosis, the children had resided in the hospital's pediatric ward for a median of 8 months (range 5–17), including a 3-month overlapping period.
CONCLUSIONS: XDR-TB is a microbiologic diagnosis that, even with HIV co-infection, can be successfully identified. Concurrent XDR-TB and HIV therapy is feasible and effective in children, although more research is needed into potential overlapping toxicities. Nosocomial transmission is suggested, calling for infection control policies in pediatric wards.
Document Type: Regular Paper
Affiliations: 1: Tugela Ferry Care and Research Collaboration, Tugela Ferry, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa; and AIDS Program, Section of Infectious Diseases, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA 2: Tugela Ferry Care and Research Collaboration, Tugela Ferry, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa; and Church of Scotland Hospital and Philanjalo Care Centre, Tugela Ferry, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa 3: Department of Paediatrics, King George V Hospital, Durban, South Africa 4: Tugela Ferry Care and Research Collaboration, Tugela Ferry, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa; and Department of Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, New York, USA
Publication date: 2010-10-01
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