Epidemiology of tuberculosis in the Americas: the Stop TB strategy and the Millennium Development Goals
Abstract:BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB), a preventable and curable disease, remains a major public health threat in the poorest regions of the Americas. The DOTS strategy was implemented to control TB in the region in 1993, and the new Stop TB strategy, emphasizing high-quality DOTS expansion, in 2006.
OBJECTIVES: To describe TB epidemiology in the region of the Americas from 1994 to 2005 and to analyze the progress made towards and prospects for achieving Goal 6 of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by 2015.
METHODS: TB incidence, mortality and prevalence rates as well as DOTS coverage and DOTS treatment success rates were collated from the World Health Organization (WHO) databases from 1994 to 2005.
RESULTS: DOTS coverage and DOTS treatment success rates rose steadily from 1994 to 2005, with 88% of the population covered under DOTS by 2005, and an 80% success rate by the end of 2004. The TB incidence, prevalence and mortality rates have also decreased steadily from 1994 to date, but differ with respect to the various scenarios.
CONCLUSIONS: With the exception of some countries, further reduction in TB incidence, prevalence and deaths by 2015 is possible. Widespread implementation of DOTS should continue in order to meet WHO targets and attain the MDGs.
Document Type: Regular Paper
Affiliations: 1: Communicable Diseases Project, Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), Washington, DC, USA 2: Regional TB Program, Pan American Health Organization, Washington, DC, USA 3: Health Analysis Project, Pan American Health Organization, Washington, DC, USA 4: Universidad de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; and Health Analysis Project, Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), Washington, DC, USA 5: Regional TB Program, Pan American Health Organization, Washington, DC, USA; and School of Public Health and Health Services, George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA 6: Tuberculosis Control and Prevention, International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, Paris, France 7: TB Program, Pan American Health Organization, Brasilia, Brazil
Publication date: 2009-08-01
The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease publishes articles on all aspects of lung health, including public health-related issues such as training programmes, cost-benefit analysis, legislation, epidemiology, intervention studies and health systems research. The IJTLD is dedicated to the continuing education of physicians and health personnel and the dissemination of information on tuberculosis and lung health world-wide.
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