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Free Content Public-private mix for control of tuberculosis and TB-HIV in Nairobi, Kenya: outcomes, opportunities and obstacles

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SETTING: Nairobi, the capital of Kenya.

OBJECTIVE: To promote standardised tuberculosis (TB) care by private health providers and links with the public sector.

DESIGN AND METHODS: A description of the results of interventions aimed at engaging private health providers in TB care and control in Nairobi. Participating providers are supported to provide TB care that conforms to national guidelines. The standard surveillance tools are used for programme monitoring and evaluation.

RESULTS: By the end of 2006, 26 of 46 (57%) private hospitals and nursing homes were engaged. TB cases reported by private providers increased from 469 in 2002 to 1740 in 2006. The treatment success rate for smear-positive pulmonary TB treated by private providers ranged from 76% to 85% between 2002 and 2005. Of the 1740 TB patients notified by the private sector in 2006, 732 (42%) were tested for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), of whom 372 (51%) were positive. Of the 372 HIV-positive TB patients, 227 (61%) were provided with cotrimoxazole preventive treatment (CPT) and 136 (37%) with antiretroviral treatment (ART).

CONCLUSION: Private providers can be engaged to provide TB-HIV care conforming to national norms. The challenges include providing diagnostics, CPT and ART and the capacity to train and supervise these providers.
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Keywords: HIV; Kenya; public-private mix; tuberculosis

Document Type: Regular Paper

Affiliations: 1: Stop TB Department, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland 2: Division of Leprosy, Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases, Ministry of Public Health and Sanitation, Nairobi, Kenya; and US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Nairobi, Kenya 3: KNCV Tuberculosis Foundation, Kenya Office, Nairobi, Kenya 4: Kenya Association for the Prevention of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases, Nairobi, Kenya 5: Division of Leprosy, Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases, Ministry of Public Health and Sanitation, Nairobi, Kenya 6: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Nairobi, Kenya 7: World Health Organization, Regional Office for Africa, Brazzaville, Congo

Publication date: 2008-11-01

More about this publication?
  • The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease publishes articles on all aspects of lung health, including public health-related issues such as training programmes, cost-benefit analysis, legislation, epidemiology, intervention studies and health systems research. The IJTLD is dedicated to the continuing education of physicians and health personnel and the dissemination of information on tuberculosis and lung health world-wide.

    Certain IJTLD articles are selected for translation into French, Spanish, Chinese or Russian. They are available on the Union website

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