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Free Content The rising incidence and clinical relevance of Mycobacterium malmoense: a review of the literature [Review article]

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The incidence of Mycobacterium malmoense infections compared to other non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) has increased since 1980, especially in northern Europe. Based on various epidemiological and clinical reports outside northern Europe, there is a wide distribution of these infections. Infections with M. malmoense cause pulmonary disease comparable with tuberculosis (TB). The main extra-pulmonary disease type is paediatric cervical lymphadenitis. M. malmoense isolates are clinically significant in about 70–80% of patients. Like other NTM infections, M. malmoense is often found in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and may cause serious morbidity and mortality when inadequately treated. The best treatment consists of a 2-year regimen with rifampicin and ethambutol. The literature on infections with M. malmoense is reviewed with respect to epidemiology, clinical presentation, treatment and outcome.
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Keywords: Mycobacterium malmoense; clinical presentation; epidemiology; review; treatment

Document Type: Review Article

Affiliations: 1: Department of Pulmonary Diseases, Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands 2: National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, The Netherlands

Publication date: 2008-09-01

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  • The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease publishes articles on all aspects of lung health, including public health-related issues such as training programmes, cost-benefit analysis, legislation, epidemiology, intervention studies and health systems research. The IJTLD is dedicated to the continuing education of physicians and health personnel and the dissemination of information on tuberculosis and lung health world-wide.

    Certain IJTLD articles are selected for translation into French, Spanish, Chinese or Russian. They are available on the Union website

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