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Free Content Poor outcome is associated with delayed tuberculosis diagnosis in HIV-infected children in Baja California, Mexico

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OBJECTIVE: To describe the morbidity and mortality associated with tuberculosis (TB) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected children in Baja California, Mexico.

METHODS: Retrospective review of the medical records of all children with perinatally acquired HIV infection evaluated at Tijuana General Hospital with a diagnosis of TB between 1998 and 2007. The Stegen-Toledo (ST) clinical criteria for the diagnosis of TB were used.

RESULTS: A total of 73 HIV-infected children were followed during the study period. Thirteen (18%) children were diagnosed with TB; one was confirmed by culture to be positive. Among these children, the mean ages at HIV and TB diagnosis were respectively 3.6 and 5.3 years. The mean ST score was 8.1; 10/13 had a score of ≥7, or highly probable TB. There were a cumulative 29 hospital admissions prior to TB diagnosis; 24 of these were due to pneumonia. The mean duration of symptoms at TB diagnosis was 73 days. The most common symptoms were cough (92%) and anorexia (85%). Seven patients (54%) had disseminated TB and five (39%) died as a consequence of TB.

CONCLUSIONS: We observed high morbidity, hospital utilization and high mortality associated with TB among HIV-infected children in Baja California.

Keywords: HIV; Mexico; TB mortality; children; tuberculosis

Document Type: Regular Paper

Affiliations: 1: Department of Pediatrics, Tijuana General Hospital, Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico 2: Mother Child and Adolescent HIV Program, University of California San Diego, San Diego, California, USA

Publication date: 2008-04-01

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  • The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease publishes articles on all aspects of lung health, including public health-related issues such as training programmes, cost-benefit analysis, legislation, epidemiology, intervention studies and health systems research. The IJTLD is dedicated to the continuing education of physicians and health personnel and the dissemination of information on tuberculosis and lung health world-wide.

    Certain IJTLD articles are selected for translation into French, Spanish, Chinese or Russian. They are available on the Union website

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