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Free Content Tuberculosis exposure in HIV-exposed infants in a high-prevalence setting [Short Communication]

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Exposure to TB was quantified by screening human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) exposed infants aged 3–4 months for an isoniazid prophylaxis study where tuberculosis (TB) exposure excluded enrolment. Seventy-seven (10.1%, 95%CI 8.0–12.4) of 766 infants had contact with a TB source case. Nurses and lay counsellors identified 52 infants during pre-screening and doctors identified 25 during formal screening. High exposure may contribute to high rates of TB in HIV-exposed infants. Programs to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV offer an important opportunity to screen for TB. In-depth assessment is required for evaluating TB exposure.

Keywords: HIV-exposed infants; PMTCT; drug resistance; tuberculosis exposure

Document Type: Short Communication

Affiliations: 1: Department of Paediatrics and Child Health and Children's Infectious Diseases Clinical Research Unit (KID-CRU), Tygerberg Children's Hospital and Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, South Africa 2: Division of Infectious Diseases, State University of New York, New York, New York, USA

Publication date: February 1, 2008

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  • The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease publishes articles on all aspects of lung health, including public health-related issues such as training programmes, cost-benefit analysis, legislation, epidemiology, intervention studies and health systems research. The IJTLD is dedicated to the continuing education of physicians and health personnel and the dissemination of information on tuberculosis and lung health world-wide.

    Certain IJTLD articles are selected for translation into French, Spanish, Chinese or Russian. They are available on the Union website

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