Impact of drug-resistant tuberculosis on the survival of HIV-infected patients
DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study.
RESULTS: Of 225 HIV-TB patients with a mean age of 35.8 years, 72.4% were male. The median CD4 cell count at TB diagnosis was 44 cells/mm3. Sixty per cent presented with extra-pulmonary TB (EPTB). Sixty-three (28%) patients were infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistant to at least one drug; respectively 16.4%, 9.3%, 5.3% and 12.9% were resistant to isoniazid (INH), rifampicin (RMP), ethambutol and streptomycin, and 14 (6.2%) had multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB). During a median follow-up of 11.5 months, 4% died. From Kaplan-Meier analysis, INH resistance, RMP resistance and MDR-TB were associated with shorter survival (log-rank test, P < 0.005). Cox's proportional hazard model showed that MDR-TB (hazard ratio [HR] 11.7; 95% CI 2.1–64.9), not receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) (HR 7.9; 95%CI 1.5–43.1) and EPTB (HR 5.1; 95%CI 1.9–25.9) were significant risk factors for death.
CONCLUSION: MDR-TB and EPTB substantially reduce survival among patients co-infected with HIV and TB. Early detection and optimal treatment of MDR-TB are crucial. ART significantly prolongs survival and should be initiated in HIV-TB co-infected patients.
Document Type: Regular Paper
Publication date: 2007-03-01
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