Skip to main content

Free Content Rifampicin mono-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Bujumbura, Burundi: results of a drug resistance survey

Download Article:
(PDF 76.0908203125 kb)


SETTING: Bujumbura, Burundi.

OBJECTIVES: To determine resistance levels of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) to the main anti-tuberculosis drugs after 11 years of a DOTS programme using a WHO-recommended partially intermittent 6-month rifampicin (RMP) first-line regimen and fixed-dose drug combinations (FDCs).

DESIGN: Drug susceptibility testing of systematic samples of M. tuberculosis isolated from newly registered sputum smear-positive cases in the capital during a 15-month period (2002–2003).

RESULTS: Of 496 strains from new cases, 16.1% showed resistance to any drug, 6.3% to isoniazid (INH), 2.0% to RMP (1.4% multidrug-resistant TB [MDR-TB]), 13.3% to streptomycin and 1.6% to ethambutol. Among 69 strains from previously treated cases, the prevalence of resistance was 30%, 19%, 15% (12% MDR-TB strains), 25% and 6%, respectively.

CONCLUSION: Levels of drug resistance in Bujumbura are higher than average for Africa, despite long-term use of the DOTS strategy with FDCs and a ban on sales of TB drugs. Most worrying is the appearance of MDR-TB and RMP-resistant, INH-susceptible strains in new cases. Although a survey cannot prove that high HIV prevalence, elevated levels of resistance to some other drugs and irregular intake allowed acquisition of drug resistance, the effectiveness and safety of 6-month regimens with (partially) intermittent RMP throughout under such conditions should be investigated.

Keywords: Burundi; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; drug susceptibility; rifampicin

Document Type: Regular Paper

Affiliations: 1: Programme National de Lutte contre la Lèpre et la Tuberculose, Bujumbura, Burundi 2: Mycobacteriology Unit, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerpen, Belgium; and International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, Paris, France 3: Mycobacteriology Unit, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerpen, Belgium

Publication date: 2006-02-01

More about this publication?
  • The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease publishes articles on all aspects of lung health, including public health-related issues such as training programmes, cost-benefit analysis, legislation, epidemiology, intervention studies and health systems research. The IJTLD is dedicated to the continuing education of physicians and health personnel and the dissemination of information on tuberculosis and lung health world-wide.

    Certain IJTLD articles are selected for translation into French, Spanish, Chinese or Russian. They are available on the Union website

  • Editorial Board
  • Information for Authors
  • Subscribe to this Title
  • International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
  • Public Health Action
  • Ingenta Connect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites
  • Access Key
  • Free content
  • Partial Free content
  • New content
  • Open access content
  • Partial Open access content
  • Subscribed content
  • Partial Subscribed content
  • Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more