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Free Content Comparison of extra-pulmonary and pulmonary tuberculosis cases: factors influencing the site of reactivation

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SETTING: Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli spread by the hematogenous route during primary infection and reactivate later.

OBJECTIVE: To compare factors influencing the reactivation site.

DESIGN: A total of 236 pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and 139 extra-pulmonary TB (EPTB) cases were compared in terms of age, co-morbid disease, immunosuppressive drug use, history of contact with a PTB case in a close relative, history of tuberculosis, smoking habit and alcohol intake.

RESULTS: The sex ratio of EPTB and PTB cases was significantly different (P < 0.001): respectively 74% of EPTB cases and 34% of PTB cases were females; 53.3% of PTB cases and 23% of EPTB cases were smokers (P < 0.001); and the disease appeared within the first 5 years after contact in 23.7% of EPTB cases compared to 72.6% in PTB cases (P < 0.001). In logistic regression analysis, gender (OR = 3.69), smoking habit (OR = 0.54) and interval between contact and disease (OR = 1.07) were found to influence the reactivation site.

CONCLUSION: The probability of PTB development was higher in males, in smokers and within the first 5 years of contact. In contrast, the probability of EPTB development was higher in females and after 5 years of contact.
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Keywords: extra-pulmonary; pulmonary; reactivation; tuberculosis

Document Type: Regular Paper

Affiliations: Department of Pneumology, Istanbul University Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul, Turkey

Publication date: 2005-11-01

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  • The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease publishes articles on all aspects of lung health, including public health-related issues such as training programmes, cost-benefit analysis, legislation, epidemiology, intervention studies and health systems research. The IJTLD is dedicated to the continuing education of physicians and health personnel and the dissemination of information on tuberculosis and lung health world-wide.

    Certain IJTLD articles are selected for translation into French, Spanish, Chinese or Russian. They are available on the Union website

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