Low socio-economic status is a risk factor for respiratory symptoms: a comparison between Finland, Sweden and Estonia
DESIGN: A postal survey was performed in 1996 as a part of comparative studies in Finland, Sweden and Estonia (the FinEsS studies). A random sample of 58661 subjects aged 20–64 years were invited, of whom 44483 participated.
RESULTS: Respiratory symptoms were most prevalent among manual workers, who were at significantly increased risk for chronic respiratory symptoms. The same pattern of increased risk appeared when the analyses were made among non-smokers only: for recurrent wheeze, manual workers in industry yielded an OR of 1.91 (95%CI 1.62–2.24) and in the service sector an OR of 1.50 (95%CI 1.27–1.78). The corresponding figures for chronic productive cough were 1.45 (95%CI 1.22–1.71) and 1.20 (95%CI 1.02–1.42), respectively. Risk factor profiles for respiratory symptoms were similar in Finland, Sweden and Estonia, except for gender differences in Estonia.
CONCLUSIONS: Belonging to the socio-economic group of manual workers correlated with an increased risk for chronic respiratory symptoms, independently of smoking habits, in each country. Women manual workers in industry suffered most from respiratory symptoms.
Document Type: Regular Paper
Affiliations: 1: Department of Medicine/Respiratory Diseases, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland 2: Lung and Allergy Research, Karolinska Institut, Stockholm, Sweden 3: Institute of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, Tallinn, Estonia 4: Laboratory Department, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
Publication date: 2004-11-01
The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease publishes articles on all aspects of lung health, including public health-related issues such as training programmes, cost-benefit analysis, legislation, epidemiology, intervention studies and health systems research. The IJTLD is dedicated to the continuing education of physicians and health personnel and the dissemination of information on tuberculosis and lung health world-wide.
Certain IJTLD articles are selected for translation into French, Spanish, Chinese or Russian. They are available on the Union website
- Editorial Board
- Information for Authors
- Subscribe to this Title
- International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
- Public Health Action
- Ingenta Connect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites