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Free Content The epidemiological profile of tuberculosis in southern Brazil in times of AIDS

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Abstract:

SETTING: Urban area in southern Brazil.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection among new cases of tuberculosis recorded in 2000 in Porto Alegre, Brazil.

DESIGN: Cross-sectional population-based study.

RESULTS: Among 1713 new tuberculosis cases, HIV testing was not available for 29.8% and results were unknown for 1.8%. Of 1171 with known results, 47% had HIV co-infection. HIV seropositivity was 44% higher in males. The 15–59 years age group had 3.4 times more seropositive cases than the group aged >59 years. Individuals with <8 years of schooling presented 57% more co-infection. HIV positivity was twice as frequent in extra-pulmonary and combined forms of tuberculosis as in pulmonary forms. Hospitalization was 2.4 times more common in HIV-positive individuals. The overall cure rate was 69.8%, while in co-infected patients it was 43.9%. The determinants of risk of death from tuberculosis included <8 years of schooling (PR 2.2, 95%CI 1.2–3.7), HIV seropositivity (PR 8.0, 95%CI 5.0–12.9), combined pulmonary and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (PR 1.7, 95%CI 1.2–2.5) and diagnosis during admission rather than in out-patient clinics (PR 5.4, 95%CI 2.9–10.1).

CONCLUSIONS: The co-occurrence of tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS indicates a need to integrate the control programs for these two diseases. The health care system should invest in early diagnosis and adherence to treatment for both diseases.

Keywords: TB/HIV co-infection; epidemiology; mortality; tuberculosis

Document Type: Regular Paper

Affiliations: 1: School of Medicine and Master's Program in Collective Health, Universidade Luterana do Brasil (ULBRA), Canoas, RS, Brazil; and Porto Alegre City Department of Health, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil 2: Lung Health Coordination, Rio Grande do Sul State Department of Health, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil

Publication date: June 1, 2004

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  • The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease publishes articles on all aspects of lung health, including public health-related issues such as training programmes, cost-benefit analysis, legislation, epidemiology, intervention studies and health systems research. The IJTLD is dedicated to the continuing education of physicians and health personnel and the dissemination of information on tuberculosis and lung health world-wide.

    Certain IJTLD articles are selected for translation into French, Spanish, Chinese or Russian. They are available on the Union website

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