Skip to main content

Free Content Risk of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Malawi: national tuberculin survey 1994

Download Article:
(PDF 130.8 kb)


OBJECTIVE: To estimate the annual risk of tuberculosis infection among schoolchildren in Malawi.

METHODS: A school survey was conducted in twelve randomly selected districts in Malawi. Children in standard 1–4 and aged 6–11 years were eligible. Tuberculin skin testing was performed according to World Health Organization/International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease guidelines.

RESULTS: Of the 17123 eligible children, 80% were tested. Of those tested 79% were read. The prevalence of infection according to various criteria was 9–12% in children without bacille Calmette-GuĂ©rin (BCG) scar. The prevalence of reactions of 10 mm or more was lower in girls than in boys, increased with age, and was higher in those with than in those without BCG scar. The annual risk of infection was estimated to be within the range 0.6–1.4%.

CONCLUSION: Annual risk of infection in Malawi was in the order of 1%. This study is expected to provide valuable baseline information for an assessment of the impact of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) on tuberculosis transmission in Malawi.

Keywords: HIV; transmission; tuberculin survey; tuberculosis; tuberculosis control

Document Type: Regular Paper

Affiliations: 1: Community Health Sciences Unit, Tuberculosis Control Programme, Lilongwe, Malawi 2: Royal Netherlands Tuberculosis Association (KNCV) and International Tuberculosis Surveillance Centre (ITSC), The Hague, The Netherlands; and International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, Paris, France 3: Royal Netherlands Tuberculosis Association (KNCV) and International Tuberculosis Surveillance Centre (ITSC), The Hague, The Netherlands

Publication date: June 1, 2004

More about this publication?
  • The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease publishes articles on all aspects of lung health, including public health-related issues such as training programmes, cost-benefit analysis, legislation, epidemiology, intervention studies and health systems research. The IJTLD is dedicated to the continuing education of physicians and health personnel and the dissemination of information on tuberculosis and lung health world-wide.

    Certain IJTLD articles are selected for translation into French, Spanish, Chinese or Russian. They are available on the Union website

  • Editorial Board
  • Information for Authors
  • Subscribe to this Title
  • International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
  • Public Health Action
  • Ingenta Connect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites

Access Key

Free Content
Free content
New Content
New content
Open Access Content
Open access content
Subscribed Content
Subscribed content
Free Trial Content
Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more