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Free Content Gender disparity amongst TB suspects and new TB patients according to data recorded at the South African Institute of Medical Research laboratory for the Western Cape Region of South Africa

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OBJECTIVE: To describe the sex and age distribution of sputum submission and smear positivity in the Western Cape Province of South Africa.

METHOD: Laboratory registers of the South African Institute of Medical Research were examined retrospectively for the year 1999.

RESULTS: Male tuberculosis (TB) suspects outnumbered females by 1.45:1, whereas amongst confirmed TB cases the ratio was 2.08:1. The odds ratio (OR) for smear positivity amongst males and females was 1.544. The proportion of male sputum positives significantly exceeded the proportion of males in the general population, as measured by the 1996 census. Not only did the number of male TB suspects and confirmed cases exceed that of females in absolute terms, but the proportion of male suspects proving smear-positive exceeded that of females. The age by sex distribution of new smear-positive patients followed the trend reported in recent literature.

CONCLUSION: The gendered incidence of tuberculosis identified from this census is consistent with that of other developing countries. However, the smaller proportion of female TB suspects proving smear-positive suggests a higher index of suspicion in females and/or longer delays prior to care seeking amongst males.
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Keywords: South Africa; gender; smear positivity; tuberculosis

Document Type: Regular Paper

Affiliations: 1: Medical Research Council, Health Systems Research Unit, Cape Town, Western Cape, South Africa 2: Medical Research Council, Health Systems Research Unit, Cape Town, Western Cape, South Africa; the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences (ICES), Toronto, Canada; and the Knowledge Translation Programme (KTP), Continuing Education-Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada

Publication date: 2004-04-01

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  • The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease publishes articles on all aspects of lung health, including public health-related issues such as training programmes, cost-benefit analysis, legislation, epidemiology, intervention studies and health systems research. The IJTLD is dedicated to the continuing education of physicians and health personnel and the dissemination of information on tuberculosis and lung health world-wide.

    Certain IJTLD articles are selected for translation into French, Spanish, Chinese or Russian. They are available on the Union website

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