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Free Content Pharmacokinetics of isoniazid under fasting conditions, with food, and with antacids

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STUDY OBJECTIVES: To determine the intra- and intersubject variability in and the effects of food or antacids on the pharmacokinetics of isoniazid (INH).

DESIGN: Randomized, four-period cross-over Phase I study in 14 healthy male and female volunteers. Subjects ingested single doses of INH 300 mg under fasting conditions twice, with a high-fat meal, and with aluminum-magnesium antacid. They also received standard doses of rifampin, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol.

RESULTS: Serum was collected for 48 hours, and assayed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Data were analyzed using noncompartmental methods and a compartmental analysis using nonparametric expectation maximization. Both fasting conditions produced similar results: a mean INH Cmax of 5.53 ± 2.92 μg/ml, Tmax of 1.02 ± 1.10 hours, and AUC0-∞ of 20.16 ± 12.45 μg * hr/ml. These findings are similar to those reported previously. Antacids did not alter these parameters significantly (Cmax of 5.62 ± 2.53 μg/ml, Tmax of 0.71 ± 0.56 hours, and AUC0-∞ of 20.27 ± 11.39 μg*hr/ml). In contrast, the high-fat meal recommended by the Food and Drug Administration reduced INH Cmax by 51% (2.73 ± 1.70 μg/ml), nearly doubled Tmax (1.93 ± 1.61 hours), and reduced AUC0-∞ by 12% (17.72 ± 10.32 μg* hr/ml).

CONCLUSIONS: These changes in Cmax, Tmax, and AUC0-∞ can be avoided by giving INH on an empty stomach whenever possible.

Keywords: Mycobacterium tuberculosis; antacids; bioavailability; food; isoniazid; pharmacokinetics

Document Type: Regular Paper

Affiliations: 1: Department of Medicine, National Jewish Medical and Research Center, Denver, Colorado, USA 2: School of Pharmacy, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA

Publication date: August 1, 1999

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  • The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease publishes articles on all aspects of lung health, including public health-related issues such as training programmes, cost-benefit analysis, legislation, epidemiology, intervention studies and health systems research. The IJTLD is dedicated to the continuing education of physicians and health personnel and the dissemination of information on tuberculosis and lung health world-wide.

    Certain IJTLD articles are selected for translation into French, Spanish, Chinese or Russian. They are available on the Union website

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