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Rapid Two-Step Metallization for Highly Conductive Black Electrodes

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A novel two-step metallization scheme for the formation of highly conductive “black” metal electrodes is presented and its underlying physics is investigated with electrical, morphological and optical characterization techniques. It is found that silver oxide microparticles converted to silver nanoparticles at a temperature as low as 150 °C just for 10 min in the course of the first metallization step. Although this first metallization step has a much shortened sintering time, it does not produce silver electrodes with high enough electrical conductivity. By performing the second metallization step with an aqueous ionic solution, however, the electrical conductivity of silver electrodes is found to be enhanced by six to seven orders of magnitude, approximately 1.0×107 S/m, only in 10 sec. Moreover, the color of silver electrodes is blackened by a factor of 1.7. This rapid two-step metallization scheme is found more amenable to an open continuous roll-to-roll printing process and the resulting sheet resistance of a “black” transparent conductive film exhibits 0.9 Ω/□ with an optical transparency of 81%.
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Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: 2013-01-01

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  • For more than 30 years, IS&T's series of digital printing conferences have been the leading forum for discussion of advances and new directions in 2D and 3D printing technologies. A comprehensive, industry-wide conference that brings together industry and academia, this meeting includes all aspects of the hardware, materials, software, images, and applications associated with digital printing systems?particularly those involved with additive manufacturing and fabrication?including bio-printing, printed electronics, page-wide, drop-on-demand, desktop and continuous ink jet, toner-based systems, and production digital printing, as well as the engineering capability, optimization, and science involved in these fields. In 2016, the conference changed its name formally to Printing for Fabrication to better reflect the content of the meeting and the evolving technology of printing.

    Please note: For purposes of its Digital Library content, IS&T defines Open Access as papers that will be downloadable in their entirety for free in perpetuity. Copyright restrictions on papers vary; see individual paper for details.

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