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Circular Coding for Data Embedding

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A general two-dimensional coding means is presented that allows recovery of data with only a cropped portion of the code, and without knowledge of the carrier image. A description of both an encoding and recovery system is provided, along with an illustrative example. Our solution involves repeating a payload with a fixed number of bits assigning one bit to every symbol in the image, whether that symbol is data carrying or non-data carrying, with the goal of guaranteeing recovery of all the bits in the payload. The system uses row-to-row offset itself to communicate the value of the phase of the circular payload. The recovery system is given the number bits in the payload, evaluates each candidate shift and ranks its confidence based on the variance of the payload bits. Symbols determined to be unsuitable for recovery are labeled “abstentions” and not included in the decoding process; special consideration is given to the checkerboard subsampling that can occur in the case when halftone cells are used as the data-carrying symbols. This particular application is examined via tests to quantify the likelihood of unrecoverable bits and bit redundancy as a function of phase and crop window size.
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Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: 2013-01-01

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  • For more than 30 years, IS&T's series of digital printing conferences have been the leading forum for discussion of advances and new directions in 2D and 3D printing technologies. A comprehensive, industry-wide conference that brings together industry and academia, this meeting includes all aspects of the hardware, materials, software, images, and applications associated with digital printing systems?particularly those involved with additive manufacturing and fabrication?including bio-printing, printed electronics, page-wide, drop-on-demand, desktop and continuous ink jet, toner-based systems, and production digital printing, as well as the engineering capability, optimization, and science involved in these fields. In 2016, the conference changed its name formally to Printing for Fabrication to better reflect the content of the meeting and the evolving technology of printing.

    Please note: For purposes of its Digital Library content, IS&T defines Open Access as papers that will be downloadable in their entirety for free in perpetuity. Copyright restrictions on papers vary; see individual paper for details.

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