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Factors to Consider in the Design and Evaluation of Commercial Printing Inks and Substrates for Permanence and Durability

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In this paper we describe the various printing technologies, both digital and analog, that are currently being used for commercial printing applications, and the unique aspects of the various marking materials, substrates, and printing systems that influence the resultant permanence and durability of the printed output. The concept of image durability is defined as the combination of image permanence (environmental stability) and print durability (physical stability). Image durability can be thought of as the resistance to degradation of the original image quality of a print or image over time and/or in response to a wide variety of environmental and physical stress factors, individually or in combination. Ultimately, the overall durability of a commercial print will be a function of the ink, the substrate, and any pre- or post-processing steps, all of which need to be carefully co-optimized for the specific handling and other conditions that the print is expected to endure. There are a wide variety of test methods that are available to evaluate the various aspects of image durability. The specific test method and/or test conditions need to be selected with the product-intent application in mind, including any post-printing production processes, as well as final end-use scenarios, in order for the results to be useful for assessing the overall fitness-for-use of the printing technology. Several commercial printing applications will be highlighted as examples of the types of testing that should be carried out in the context of both the expected stress factors and fitness for use for each application.
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Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: 2012-01-01

More about this publication?
  • For more than 30 years, IS&T's series of digital printing conferences have been the leading forum for discussion of advances and new directions in 2D and 3D printing technologies. A comprehensive, industry-wide conference that brings together industry and academia, this meeting includes all aspects of the hardware, materials, software, images, and applications associated with digital printing systems?particularly those involved with additive manufacturing and fabrication?including bio-printing, printed electronics, page-wide, drop-on-demand, desktop and continuous ink jet, toner-based systems, and production digital printing, as well as the engineering capability, optimization, and science involved in these fields. In 2016, the conference changed its name formally to Printing for Fabrication to better reflect the content of the meeting and the evolving technology of printing.

    Please note: For purposes of its Digital Library content, IS&T defines Open Access as papers that will be downloadable in their entirety for free in perpetuity. Copyright restrictions on papers vary; see individual paper for details.

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