In this paper we describe the various printing technologies, both digital and analog, that are currently being used for commercial printing applications, and the unique aspects of the various marking materials, substrates, and printing systems that influence the resultant permanence
and durability of the printed output. The concept of image durability is defined as the combination of image permanence (environmental stability) and print durability (physical stability). Image durability can be thought of as the resistance to degradation of the original image quality of
a print or image over time and/or in response to a wide variety of environmental and physical stress factors, individually or in combination. Ultimately, the overall durability of a commercial print will be a function of the ink, the substrate, and any pre- or post-processing steps, all of
which need to be carefully co-optimized for the specific handling and other conditions that the print is expected to endure. There are a wide variety of test methods that are available to evaluate the various aspects of image durability. The specific test method and/or test conditions need
to be selected with the product-intent application in mind, including any post-printing production processes, as well as final end-use scenarios, in order for the results to be useful for assessing the overall fitness-for-use of the printing technology. Several commercial printing applications
will be highlighted as examples of the types of testing that should be carried out in the context of both the expected stress factors and fitness for use for each application.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: January 1, 2012
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For more than 25 years, NIP has been the leading forum for discussion of advances and new directions in non-impact and digital printing technologies. A comprehensive, industry-wide conference, this meeting includes all aspects of the hardware, materials, software, images, and applications associated with digital printing systems, including drop-on-demand ink jet, wide format ink jet, desktop and continuous ink jet, toner-based electrophotographic printers, production digital printing systems, and thermal printing systems, as well as the engineering capability, optimization, and science involved in these fields.
Since 2005, NIP has been held in conjunction with the Digital Fabrication Conference.