Skip to main content

Low Cost Metallization Inks for Photovoltaics

Buy Article:

$20.00 plus tax (Refund Policy)


Commercial Si wafer solar cells employ screen printed Ag grids as the front contact and Al layers as the back contact. The drive to decrease cost is pushing manufacturers to seek both lower cost materials and methods. One obvious material change is to replace Ag with lower cost metals such as Ni and Cu. Shifting to thinner Si wafers is another reasonable cost saving measure, but it will also necessitate replacing contact methods like screen printing. Inkjet and aerosol jet printing are excellent non-contact choices. These tools have been incorporated into NREL's Atmospheric Processing Platform, along with complementary rapid thermal processing capabilities. We have used these tools to deposit Ni/Cu bilayer grids as the front contacts and Al layers as the back contacts on 21 cm2 Si solar cells. To our knowledge, this is the first time all non-contact printed metal contacts on Si solar cells have been demonstrated. These studies also show the potential of non-contact printed Al, Ni, and Cu inks to contribute to the fabrication of low-cost photovoltaic devices.

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: 2012-01-01

More about this publication?
  • For more than 25 years, NIP has been the leading forum for discussion of advances and new directions in non-impact and digital printing technologies. A comprehensive, industry-wide conference, this meeting includes all aspects of the hardware, materials, software, images, and applications associated with digital printing systems, including drop-on-demand ink jet, wide format ink jet, desktop and continuous ink jet, toner-based electrophotographic printers, production digital printing systems, and thermal printing systems, as well as the engineering capability, optimization, and science involved in these fields.

    Since 2005, NIP has been held in conjunction with the Digital Fabrication Conference.

  • Information for Authors
  • Submit a Paper
  • Subscribe to this Title
  • Membership Information
  • Terms & Conditions
  • Ingenta Connect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites
  • Access Key
  • Free ContentFree content
  • Partial Free ContentPartial Free content
  • New ContentNew content
  • Open Access ContentOpen access content
  • Partial Open Access ContentPartial Open access content
  • Subscribed ContentSubscribed content
  • Partial Subscribed ContentPartial Subscribed content
  • Free Trial ContentFree trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more