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Toner Adhesion State Control in Electrophotography

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In electrophotographic (xerographic) marking systems the toner adhesion state impacts development, transfer, cleaning, and toner transport. The adhesion state can be linked to critical to customer responses (CTCs) like color consistency and stability, color macro-uniformity, color accuracy and gamut, and image noise and mottle. In this paper we will discuss the key control factors that impact the toner adhesion state and provide specific examples of how the toner adhesion state may be optimized through improved toner design (materials) and closed loop feedback and control (hardware and controls) within xerographic engines [1]. The linkage between toner adhesion state control factors and the CTCs is illustrated in the process diagram in figure 1. Improved control of the toner adhesion state may be enabling for expanded media latitude and 6 to 8 color tandem intermediate belt xerography.

We have measured and simulated the electric field detachment distributions of toners with differing properties to improve our understanding of how the key control factors and their distributions impact adhesion and toner detachment. Monte-Carlo simulations using extensions of the adhesion models developed by James Feng and Dan Hays have proved particularly helpful in interpreting the measured detachment field distributions, quantifying how the control factors (mean and variance) impact these distributions, and improving our fundamental understanding of the electric field detachment of toner.

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: January 1, 2011

More about this publication?
  • For more than 25 years, NIP has been the leading forum for discussion of advances and new directions in non-impact and digital printing technologies. A comprehensive, industry-wide conference, this meeting includes all aspects of the hardware, materials, software, images, and applications associated with digital printing systems, including drop-on-demand ink jet, wide format ink jet, desktop and continuous ink jet, toner-based electrophotographic printers, production digital printing systems, and thermal printing systems, as well as the engineering capability, optimization, and science involved in these fields.

    Since 2005, NIP has been held in conjunction with the Digital Fabrication Conference.

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