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X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of carbon in commercial copper phthalocyanine pigments

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This paper presents systematic studies of the C1s signal in the X-ray photoelectron spectra of commercial Cu-phthalocyanine (CuPc) commonly used as a major commercial cyan pigment in a variety of printing applications. Although the CuPc pigment has been widely employed for many decades, the correct interpretation of the C1s signal in non-stoichiometric CuPc pigments has not yet been agreed upon. Our work demonstrates that the composite C1s CuPc signal consists of five components: two related to principal C positions within the CuPc macrocycle, two associated with shake-up transitions accompanying the principal C positions, and one due to mostly aliphatic impurities. A detailed analysis showed that magnitude of shake-up peaks was approximately equal 10% to 12% of their principal transitions, in agreement with theoretical calculations, while the impurities C1s signal corresponded to IR measurement of the aliphatic C-H vibrations. The proposed C1s interpretation has been successfully tested for a large number of commercial CuPc pigments and provides a guideline for routine XPS analysis of the CuPc that can provide a reliable pigment quality control.
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Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: 01 January 2010

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  • For more than 30 years, IS&T's series of digital printing conferences have been the leading forum for discussion of advances and new directions in 2D and 3D printing technologies. A comprehensive, industry-wide conference that brings together industry and academia, this meeting includes all aspects of the hardware, materials, software, images, and applications associated with digital printing systems?particularly those involved with additive manufacturing and fabrication?including bio-printing, printed electronics, page-wide, drop-on-demand, desktop and continuous ink jet, toner-based systems, and production digital printing, as well as the engineering capability, optimization, and science involved in these fields. In 2016, the conference changed its name formally to Printing for Fabrication to better reflect the content of the meeting and the evolving technology of printing.

    Please note: For purposes of its Digital Library content, IS&T defines Open Access as papers that will be downloadable in their entirety for free in perpetuity. Copyright restrictions on papers vary; see individual paper for details.

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