X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of carbon in commercial copper phthalocyanine pigments
Abstract:This paper presents systematic studies of the C1s signal in the X-ray photoelectron spectra of commercial Cu-phthalocyanine (CuPc) commonly used as a major commercial cyan pigment in a variety of printing applications. Although the CuPc pigment has been widely employed for many decades, the correct interpretation of the C1s signal in non-stoichiometric CuPc pigments has not yet been agreed upon. Our work demonstrates that the composite C1s CuPc signal consists of five components: two related to principal C positions within the CuPc macrocycle, two associated with shake-up transitions accompanying the principal C positions, and one due to mostly aliphatic impurities. A detailed analysis showed that magnitude of shake-up peaks was approximately equal 10% to 12% of their principal transitions, in agreement with theoretical calculations, while the impurities C1s signal corresponded to IR measurement of the aliphatic C-H vibrations. The proposed C1s interpretation has been successfully tested for a large number of commercial CuPc pigments and provides a guideline for routine XPS analysis of the CuPc that can provide a reliable pigment quality control.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: January 1, 2010
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