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Effects of Fluid Viscosity on Drop-on-Demand Ink-Jet Break-Off

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Simulations of the jetting of Newtonian fluids from drop-ondemand print heads show that the radial jet pinch-off region, which may lie inside the nozzle, is strongly affected by the fluid viscosity over the range of values that are commonly used. Jet profiles beyond the nozzle exit predicted in these simulations match previously published high resolution images very well and validate the code used. The simulations show that the radial velocity at the minimum radius in the pinch-off region falls exponentially soon after neck formation but then approaches a speed near that predicted theoretically for filament rupture.

The overall jet length is primarily controlled by the slow speed of radial pinch-off. Towards the final break-off time, competition between the original radial minimum and a developing second radial minimum can alter the flow conditions towards symmetry. The simulations also explain why visible jets are shaped like truncated cones. Pinch-off occurs typically within one nozzle radius of the nozzle exit, and while it may be located within the nozzle region, another radial minimum also forms outside the nozzle, close to the exit for low viscosity fluids but well beyond it for higher viscosity fluid. The radial collapse follows a power law with time, with the power-law index n varying between the value of n=2/3 expected for an inviscid fluid and n=1 law expected for a viscous fluid. The transition in behavior occurs at a viscosity of ∼20 mPa s, which is within the range of ∼10–40 mPa s typical of most DoD inks formulations.
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Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: 2010-01-01

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  • For more than 30 years, IS&T's series of digital printing conferences have been the leading forum for discussion of advances and new directions in 2D and 3D printing technologies. A comprehensive, industry-wide conference that brings together industry and academia, this meeting includes all aspects of the hardware, materials, software, images, and applications associated with digital printing systems?particularly those involved with additive manufacturing and fabrication?including bio-printing, printed electronics, page-wide, drop-on-demand, desktop and continuous ink jet, toner-based systems, and production digital printing, as well as the engineering capability, optimization, and science involved in these fields. In 2016, the conference changed its name formally to Printing for Fabrication to better reflect the content of the meeting and the evolving technology of printing.

    Please note: For purposes of its Digital Library content, IS&T defines Open Access as papers that will be downloadable in their entirety for free in perpetuity. Copyright restrictions on papers vary; see individual paper for details.

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