Contact and Non-Contact Fusing and Fixing of Toners

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Demand on material properties of toner especially viscosity and elasticity are different depending on whether fusing is accomplished by contact or non-contact means. In roll fusing (contact fusing) toner particles are subjected to pressure and heat for dwell time dependent on the roll speed and nip length. The assembly of toner particles goes through compression while the layer is being heated. The molten particles are subjected to shear which results in changes in viscosity and elasticity. Subsequently as the toner particles on the media separate from the roller, they go through stretching at fairly high rates depending on the speed of the roller. Difficulties arise when heat is applied to the media, which leads over drying of the media and causes difficulties in media handling. The pressure distribution can cause image deformation and media curling. In non-contact fusing, radiant fusing, flash fusing, microwave fusing or steam fusing, toner assembly is subjected to intense heat without external shearing or stretching. Coalescence and spreading of the toner particles take place quickly and efficiently. Adhesion of toner to the media is expected to be stronger. Non-contact fusing is contrasted with contact fusing models and compared with experiments.

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: January 1, 2009

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  • For more than 25 years, NIP has been the leading forum for discussion of advances and new directions in non-impact and digital printing technologies. A comprehensive, industry-wide conference, this meeting includes all aspects of the hardware, materials, software, images, and applications associated with digital printing systems, including drop-on-demand ink jet, wide format ink jet, desktop and continuous ink jet, toner-based electrophotographic printers, production digital printing systems, and thermal printing systems, as well as the engineering capability, optimization, and science involved in these fields.

    Since 2005, NIP has been held in conjunction with the Digital Fabrication Conference.

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