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Modeling of Photoconductor Print Artifacts Using a Mixture of Gaussians

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Manufacturing imperfections of photoconductor (PC) drums in electrophotographic (EP) printers cause low-frequency artifacts that could produce objectionable non-uniformities in the final printouts. In this paper, we propose a technique to detect and quantify PC artifacts. A scanner-based system is utilized to scan printed pages of flat-field areas. A wavelet-based filtering technique is applied to the scanned images to isolate the PC-related artifacts from other printing artifacts, based on the frequency range and the direction of the PC defects. The prior knowledge of the PC circumference is utilized to determine the printed area at each revolution of the drum to be analyzed separately. The expectation maximization (EM) algorithm for probability density estimation is applied to the filtered images to model the PC defects as a mixture of three Gaussians. We use the estimated parameters of the Gaussians to measure the severity of the defect. The consistency of the PC artifacts, at subsequent revolutions of the drum, is studied by comparing the models from different revolutions. Results from experiments on different drums and print samples of different tone levels show a high correlation score between the proposed measure and the subjective evaluation of print quality experts.
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Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: 2009-01-01

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  • For more than 30 years, IS&T's series of digital printing conferences have been the leading forum for discussion of advances and new directions in 2D and 3D printing technologies. A comprehensive, industry-wide conference that brings together industry and academia, this meeting includes all aspects of the hardware, materials, software, images, and applications associated with digital printing systems?particularly those involved with additive manufacturing and fabrication?including bio-printing, printed electronics, page-wide, drop-on-demand, desktop and continuous ink jet, toner-based systems, and production digital printing, as well as the engineering capability, optimization, and science involved in these fields. In 2016, the conference changed its name formally to Printing for Fabrication to better reflect the content of the meeting and the evolving technology of printing.

    Please note: For purposes of its Digital Library content, IS&T defines Open Access as papers that will be downloadable in their entirety for free in perpetuity. Copyright restrictions on papers vary; see individual paper for details.

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