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Information embedding in electrophotographic document forms through laser intensity modulation – a communications systems perspective

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Printed documents have been used as accessories to fraud, terrorist attacks, forgery, and extortion. Tracking down the printer that was used to produce such documents may be beneficial to law enforcement and military agents. Printer identification requires the extraction of a set of features or signatures that uniquely represent the printer. These signatures can be inherent or intrinsic to the printing process, or they can be artificially produced and embedded during the printing process. In this paper, the hidden information for an electrophotographic (EP) printer is generated by altering the laser beam intensity from scan line to scan line, which results in dot gain, and shift in the horizontal position of the dots. Techniques from digital communications are applied to this embedding signal to make it imperceptible, but reliably transmitted and recovered. The embedding signal is inserted in the frames or borders of security documents such as bank notes, statements, and event tickets. Such an embedding scheme offers a content-independent domain for marking the print compared to using text characters or halftone images.
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Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: 2009-01-01

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  • For more than 30 years, IS&T's series of digital printing conferences have been the leading forum for discussion of advances and new directions in 2D and 3D printing technologies. A comprehensive, industry-wide conference that brings together industry and academia, this meeting includes all aspects of the hardware, materials, software, images, and applications associated with digital printing systems?particularly those involved with additive manufacturing and fabrication?including bio-printing, printed electronics, page-wide, drop-on-demand, desktop and continuous ink jet, toner-based systems, and production digital printing, as well as the engineering capability, optimization, and science involved in these fields. In 2016, the conference changed its name formally to Printing for Fabrication to better reflect the content of the meeting and the evolving technology of printing.

    Please note: For purposes of its Digital Library content, IS&T defines Open Access as papers that will be downloadable in their entirety for free in perpetuity. Copyright restrictions on papers vary; see individual paper for details.

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