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External Additives for Toners: Treatment with Functional Silanes for Active Triboelectrostatic Charge Control

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Abstract:

Treated fine particles of metal oxides such as silica, titania, and alumina are commonly used in toner formulations to help to achieve the necessary level of toner free flow and trboelectrostatic charging. In most cases such particles are treated with hydrophobicity imparting agents such as alkylsilanes or silicone oils and their charging characteristics reflect the acidity of the base oxide and quality of the hydrophobic treatment. So far little has been reported on the effect of different chemical functional groups on charging characteristics of treated metal oxides.

This paper describes the treatment and characterization of fine particles of aforementioned oxides with two types of functional silanes containing nitro groups and fluorine atoms. Results of triboelectrostatic charge measurements demonstrate that both treatments significantly enhance negative charge and, in certain cases, greatly reduce tribocharge humidity sensitivity. Observed charge enhancement parallels the amount of functional silane present on the surface. Possible reasons for such behavior are discussed from the point of view of ion-transfer model of contact electrification and in conjunction with the available characterization data.

Using external additives modified with nitro and fluorine containing functional groups may allow formulators to reduce the number of formulation components and provide extra flexibility to achieve the target performance.

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: January 1, 2009

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  • For more than 25 years, NIP has been the leading forum for discussion of advances and new directions in non-impact and digital printing technologies. A comprehensive, industry-wide conference, this meeting includes all aspects of the hardware, materials, software, images, and applications associated with digital printing systems, including drop-on-demand ink jet, wide format ink jet, desktop and continuous ink jet, toner-based electrophotographic printers, production digital printing systems, and thermal printing systems, as well as the engineering capability, optimization, and science involved in these fields.

    Since 2005, NIP has been held in conjunction with the Digital Fabrication Conference.
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