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A Conceptual Model of Toner Charge Admixing

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During xerographic development, charged toner particles are removed from the developer by the latent electrostatic image, and are replaced by uncharged dispensed toner particles. As a result, the total toner population in a developer contains charged incumbent particles and uncharged added particles. To maintain image quality, the latter toner particles must rapidly chargeequilibrate with the already-charged toner particles in the developer. As outlined in the present paper, a conceptual chargeadmix model based on a direct graphical analysis can provide a clear picture of toner-carrier and toner-toner charge-admixexchange processes. The model starts with the “perfect” charge admix case, and this is then used as a base for the development of a model for atypical charge admix processes. The model also describes toner charging performance from the initial developer charge-up step through the charge spectra of the final toner admix step. In this paper, predictions from the conceptual model are also reviewed for various levels of developer mixing and aging.
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Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: 2009-01-01

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  • For more than 30 years, IS&T's series of digital printing conferences have been the leading forum for discussion of advances and new directions in 2D and 3D printing technologies. A comprehensive, industry-wide conference that brings together industry and academia, this meeting includes all aspects of the hardware, materials, software, images, and applications associated with digital printing systems?particularly those involved with additive manufacturing and fabrication?including bio-printing, printed electronics, page-wide, drop-on-demand, desktop and continuous ink jet, toner-based systems, and production digital printing, as well as the engineering capability, optimization, and science involved in these fields. In 2016, the conference changed its name formally to Printing for Fabrication to better reflect the content of the meeting and the evolving technology of printing.

    Please note: For purposes of its Digital Library content, IS&T defines Open Access as papers that will be downloadable in their entirety for free in perpetuity. Copyright restrictions on papers vary; see individual paper for details.

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