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A Conceptual Model of Toner Charge Admixing

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During xerographic development, charged toner particles are removed from the developer by the latent electrostatic image, and are replaced by uncharged dispensed toner particles. As a result, the total toner population in a developer contains charged incumbent particles and uncharged added particles. To maintain image quality, the latter toner particles must rapidly chargeequilibrate with the already-charged toner particles in the developer. As outlined in the present paper, a conceptual chargeadmix model based on a direct graphical analysis can provide a clear picture of toner-carrier and toner-toner charge-admixexchange processes. The model starts with the “perfect” charge admix case, and this is then used as a base for the development of a model for atypical charge admix processes. The model also describes toner charging performance from the initial developer charge-up step through the charge spectra of the final toner admix step. In this paper, predictions from the conceptual model are also reviewed for various levels of developer mixing and aging.

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: January 1, 2009

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  • For more than 25 years, NIP has been the leading forum for discussion of advances and new directions in non-impact and digital printing technologies. A comprehensive, industry-wide conference, this meeting includes all aspects of the hardware, materials, software, images, and applications associated with digital printing systems, including drop-on-demand ink jet, wide format ink jet, desktop and continuous ink jet, toner-based electrophotographic printers, production digital printing systems, and thermal printing systems, as well as the engineering capability, optimization, and science involved in these fields.

    Since 2005, NIP has been held in conjunction with the Digital Fabrication Conference.

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