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Frictional Flow and Developer Charge

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Intimate contact between the surfaces takes place by normal and tangential forces (friction). Lattice-Boltzmann and DEM methods have been used to analyze frictional flow, particle collisions and solving Navier-Stokes' equations.

Any collision between toner and developer can result in charge exchange that depends on dielectric relaxation. Charge transport processes in disordered complex media are accompanied by anomalously slow relaxation for which usually a broad distribution of relaxation times is adopted. To account for those properties of the environment, a standard kinetic approach in description of the system is addressed either in the framework of continuous-time random walks or fractional diffusion. A model can be constructed which assumes collisions between toner particle being elastic-plastic and an elastic carrier particle. Charge transfer takes place during each collision and the collision frequency is derived from particulate flow of cohesive particles. Charge to mass is analyzed for dependence on toner particle size, charge mobility, dielectric relaxation and yield stress (modulus) of toner and carrier surfaces. Model predictions are compared with experimental results.

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: January 1, 2009

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  • For more than 25 years, NIP has been the leading forum for discussion of advances and new directions in non-impact and digital printing technologies. A comprehensive, industry-wide conference, this meeting includes all aspects of the hardware, materials, software, images, and applications associated with digital printing systems, including drop-on-demand ink jet, wide format ink jet, desktop and continuous ink jet, toner-based electrophotographic printers, production digital printing systems, and thermal printing systems, as well as the engineering capability, optimization, and science involved in these fields.

    Since 2005, NIP has been held in conjunction with the Digital Fabrication Conference.

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