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Bead-Carry-Out Phenomenon in Two-Component Development System of Electrophotography

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During the operation of a magnetic two-component development system used in electrophotography, some carrier particles adhere to a photoreceptor surface and cause serious image defects. This phenomenon is called “bead-carry-out” or “carrier development.” The author has observed the phenomenon using a high-speed CCD camera and has measured the number density of carrier particles that adhere to the photoreceptor surface after the development process under various conditions of the development voltage, toner particle concentration, and size of the carrier particles. The experimental results indicated the following characteristics. (1) Some particles were separated from the top of bead chains immediately after the chains separated from the photoreceptor at the outlet of the development nip. (2) A threshold voltage existed for the occurrence of bead-carry-out. (3) The threshold was low when the diameter of the carrier particles was small and the toner particle concentration was low. (4) The number density of the adhered carrier particles increases with an increase in the applied voltage and a decrease in the toner particle concentration. It has been clarified by a separate experiment that the effective conductivity of the bulk mixture of carrier and toner particles was significantly related to these characteristics. Because the carrier particles are conductive and toner particles are insulative, the latter disturbs the electrical conduction in the chain, and therefore, the electrical charge at the top of the chain induced by the voltage application is decreased at a critical concentration of the toner particles in the chain. This condition causes a reduction in the Coulomb force applied to the top of the chain and improves the bead-carry-out phenomenon. Quantitative characteristics of these features have also been elucidated by a numerical simulation. Some countermeasures against this phenomenon were also proposed based on the experiment and calculation.

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: January 1, 2008

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  • For more than 25 years, NIP has been the leading forum for discussion of advances and new directions in non-impact and digital printing technologies. A comprehensive, industry-wide conference, this meeting includes all aspects of the hardware, materials, software, images, and applications associated with digital printing systems, including drop-on-demand ink jet, wide format ink jet, desktop and continuous ink jet, toner-based electrophotographic printers, production digital printing systems, and thermal printing systems, as well as the engineering capability, optimization, and science involved in these fields.

    Since 2005, NIP has been held in conjunction with the Digital Fabrication Conference.

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