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Distributed 3D Aspect Ratios of Toner

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Two-dimensional shape analysis of toner may be extended to three dimensions by combining shape information from typical image analysis of oriented toner with information from instruments that measure toner volume such as the Coulter Multisizer. A mean aspect ratio for the hidden dimension perpendicular to the plane of the image can be estimated by assuming a model shape such as an ellipsoid. Furthermore, if the shape is independent of the size, a relationship between the aspect ratio of the hidden dimension and the aspect ratio of the visible dimensions may be developed. Shape is independent of size when brittle fracture dominates the grinding process in melt-pulverized toners (MPT) and is independent by design in the limited coalescence manufacturing method used to make chemically prepared toner (CPT). The relationship between the different aspect ratios is useful to distinguish toners that have flat disk-like particles from toners with spherical particles within a broader distribution of shapes that result in different performance in the electrophotographic process.

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: January 1, 2008

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  • For more than 25 years, NIP has been the leading forum for discussion of advances and new directions in non-impact and digital printing technologies. A comprehensive, industry-wide conference, this meeting includes all aspects of the hardware, materials, software, images, and applications associated with digital printing systems, including drop-on-demand ink jet, wide format ink jet, desktop and continuous ink jet, toner-based electrophotographic printers, production digital printing systems, and thermal printing systems, as well as the engineering capability, optimization, and science involved in these fields.

    Since 2005, NIP has been held in conjunction with the Digital Fabrication Conference.

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