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Distributed 3D Aspect Ratios of Toner

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Two-dimensional shape analysis of toner may be extended to three dimensions by combining shape information from typical image analysis of oriented toner with information from instruments that measure toner volume such as the Coulter Multisizer. A mean aspect ratio for the hidden dimension perpendicular to the plane of the image can be estimated by assuming a model shape such as an ellipsoid. Furthermore, if the shape is independent of the size, a relationship between the aspect ratio of the hidden dimension and the aspect ratio of the visible dimensions may be developed. Shape is independent of size when brittle fracture dominates the grinding process in melt-pulverized toners (MPT) and is independent by design in the limited coalescence manufacturing method used to make chemically prepared toner (CPT). The relationship between the different aspect ratios is useful to distinguish toners that have flat disk-like particles from toners with spherical particles within a broader distribution of shapes that result in different performance in the electrophotographic process.
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Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: 2008-01-01

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  • For more than 30 years, IS&T's series of digital printing conferences have been the leading forum for discussion of advances and new directions in 2D and 3D printing technologies. A comprehensive, industry-wide conference that brings together industry and academia, this meeting includes all aspects of the hardware, materials, software, images, and applications associated with digital printing systems?particularly those involved with additive manufacturing and fabrication?including bio-printing, printed electronics, page-wide, drop-on-demand, desktop and continuous ink jet, toner-based systems, and production digital printing, as well as the engineering capability, optimization, and science involved in these fields. In 2016, the conference changed its name formally to Printing for Fabrication to better reflect the content of the meeting and the evolving technology of printing.

    Please note: For purposes of its Digital Library content, IS&T defines Open Access as papers that will be downloadable in their entirety for free in perpetuity. Copyright restrictions on papers vary; see individual paper for details.

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