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Numerical Simulations of Electrophotography Processes

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This paper provides an overview of the recent progress of simulation technology in Japan for the development of electrophotography processes—charging, exposure, development, transfer, fusing, cleaning, and paper handling. By utilizing highly efficient hardware and software, the simulation technology has been improved significantly. Because charging, exposure, and fusing processes are based on the mechanics of continuous media, they are formulated as a set of multi-component, nonstationary, and nonlinear partial differential equations and are numerically solved by the iterative finite element method or finite differential method. In contrast, the discrete element method is used to simulate the dynamics of toner and/or carrier particles in the development, transfer, and cleaning processes. The method of direct observation with a high-speed microscope camera and particle tracking velocimetry are used to improve physical models and to confirm the adequacy of calculation results. Thus, the electrophotography processes are no longer a black box.
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Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: 2008-01-01

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  • For more than 30 years, IS&T's series of digital printing conferences have been the leading forum for discussion of advances and new directions in 2D and 3D printing technologies. A comprehensive, industry-wide conference that brings together industry and academia, this meeting includes all aspects of the hardware, materials, software, images, and applications associated with digital printing systems?particularly those involved with additive manufacturing and fabrication?including bio-printing, printed electronics, page-wide, drop-on-demand, desktop and continuous ink jet, toner-based systems, and production digital printing, as well as the engineering capability, optimization, and science involved in these fields. In 2016, the conference changed its name formally to Printing for Fabrication to better reflect the content of the meeting and the evolving technology of printing.

    Please note: For purposes of its Digital Library content, IS&T defines Open Access as papers that will be downloadable in their entirety for free in perpetuity. Copyright restrictions on papers vary; see individual paper for details.

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