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Numerical Simulations of Electrophotography Processes

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This paper provides an overview of the recent progress of simulation technology in Japan for the development of electrophotography processes—charging, exposure, development, transfer, fusing, cleaning, and paper handling. By utilizing highly efficient hardware and software, the simulation technology has been improved significantly. Because charging, exposure, and fusing processes are based on the mechanics of continuous media, they are formulated as a set of multi-component, nonstationary, and nonlinear partial differential equations and are numerically solved by the iterative finite element method or finite differential method. In contrast, the discrete element method is used to simulate the dynamics of toner and/or carrier particles in the development, transfer, and cleaning processes. The method of direct observation with a high-speed microscope camera and particle tracking velocimetry are used to improve physical models and to confirm the adequacy of calculation results. Thus, the electrophotography processes are no longer a black box.

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: January 1, 2008

More about this publication?
  • For more than 25 years, NIP has been the leading forum for discussion of advances and new directions in non-impact and digital printing technologies. A comprehensive, industry-wide conference, this meeting includes all aspects of the hardware, materials, software, images, and applications associated with digital printing systems, including drop-on-demand ink jet, wide format ink jet, desktop and continuous ink jet, toner-based electrophotographic printers, production digital printing systems, and thermal printing systems, as well as the engineering capability, optimization, and science involved in these fields.

    Since 2005, NIP has been held in conjunction with the Digital Fabrication Conference.

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