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Evolution and Regulatory Impact of Fumed Inorganic Materials in Toners

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This presentation will describe how two nano-structured inorganic material classes which are produced by flame processes have been crucial to the technical evolution of the toner industry during the past two decades: fumed metal oxides as external additives and carbon black as the essential pigment. Market forces driving this evolution and increasing additive diversity are the demand for high speed office printers and commercial digital presses and the need for low priced laser printers to make small office and home (SOHO) use affordable. Additionally, ecofriendly printers with reduced energy consumption and zero emissions require the development of toner with low fusing temperatures (low Tg) based on environmentally safe raw materials. Novel fumed silicon/titanium mixed oxides offer the positive tribo-charging benefits of titanium dioxide combined with the surface properties of silica. Acting as effective spacers that prevent re-agglomeration of low Tg toner, fumed sub-micron particles based on both silica and titania have distinct advantages over precipitated and sol-gel-derived materials, respectively. These include; low moisture, high purity, and the complete absence of internal porosity. For improved dispersibility and optimized toner surface coverage, de-agglomerated, chemical and mechanical structure-modified fumed metal oxides have been developed and will be discussed. Lastly, the paper will explore the impact of the ongoing EH&S (environmental, health & safety) discussion on external additives, carbon black and development trends toward safe external additives.
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Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: 2008-01-01

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  • For more than 30 years, IS&T's series of digital printing conferences have been the leading forum for discussion of advances and new directions in 2D and 3D printing technologies. A comprehensive, industry-wide conference that brings together industry and academia, this meeting includes all aspects of the hardware, materials, software, images, and applications associated with digital printing systems?particularly those involved with additive manufacturing and fabrication?including bio-printing, printed electronics, page-wide, drop-on-demand, desktop and continuous ink jet, toner-based systems, and production digital printing, as well as the engineering capability, optimization, and science involved in these fields. In 2016, the conference changed its name formally to Printing for Fabrication to better reflect the content of the meeting and the evolving technology of printing.

    Please note: For purposes of its Digital Library content, IS&T defines Open Access as papers that will be downloadable in their entirety for free in perpetuity. Copyright restrictions on papers vary; see individual paper for details.

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