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Viscoelasticity in toner fusing process

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Fusion and fix of images is an important process in digital printing. A base toner is mainly composed of a polymeric binder and a pigment with and without an internal lubricant for fuser roll. Necessary step in fusion of toner after particles melt is coalescence of particles. A review of models of coalescence of particles finds that rate of calescence is dependent on toner particle size, its viscoelastcity and its surface tension. Rolling contact analysis can be used to calculate temperature and shear rate during roll fusing. Temperature and strain rate dependent toner viscoelasticity (viscosity and compliance/modulus) is affected by important variables such as entanglement molecular weight and morphology of a binder polymer. Compared to fusion of toner image, fixing of an image takes place continually as the toner temperature drops. Eventually, adhesion and fixing of the toner image to a substrate is tested at ambient temperature where shear and flexural stresses dominate. Unlike fusion, the effect of molecular weight and morphology of a binder toner is different on image fix because of their effect on brittle - ductile transition and toughness (modulus) of a toner.
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Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: 01 January 2007

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  • For more than 30 years, IS&T's series of digital printing conferences have been the leading forum for discussion of advances and new directions in 2D and 3D printing technologies. A comprehensive, industry-wide conference that brings together industry and academia, this meeting includes all aspects of the hardware, materials, software, images, and applications associated with digital printing systems?particularly those involved with additive manufacturing and fabrication?including bio-printing, printed electronics, page-wide, drop-on-demand, desktop and continuous ink jet, toner-based systems, and production digital printing, as well as the engineering capability, optimization, and science involved in these fields. In 2016, the conference changed its name formally to Printing for Fabrication to better reflect the content of the meeting and the evolving technology of printing.

    Please note: For purposes of its Digital Library content, IS&T defines Open Access as papers that will be downloadable in their entirety for free in perpetuity. Copyright restrictions on papers vary; see individual paper for details.

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