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Investigation of Factors that Impact Toner Mass Transfer in Electrophotographic Processes Using the Discrete Element Method

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Toner mass transfer in the developer nip, an essential part of the electrophotographic imaging printing process, greatly effects print quality. It has long been known that toner particle size and toner particle charge are the two most important factors impacting toner mass transfer in the developer nip. However, there is no quantitative analysis to help determine the effects of these two factors, nor the interaction between them. A third factor, toner particle packing, also influences mass transfer but is typically not considered due to the lack of an effective metric to describe this packing. In this work, distance between particles is used to approximate this factor. The discrete element method (DEM) model developed in previous paper “Simulating Motion of Toner Using the Discrete Element Method” is used here to study effects of these three factors. All three factors (toner particle size, toner charge, and toner packing), and the relationship between these three factors, were investigated using the DEM model in a design of experiments (DOE) format to understand how they influence toner mass transfer. Factors affecting the pile height on the developer roller after mass transfer and the line-width on the developer roller after mass transfer are the same, however, the effect of these factors are different.

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: 2007-01-01

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  • For more than 30 years, IS&T's series of digital printing conferences have been the leading forum for discussion of advances and new directions in 2D and 3D printing technologies. A comprehensive, industry-wide conference that brings together industry and academia, this meeting includes all aspects of the hardware, materials, software, images, and applications associated with digital printing systems?particularly those involved with additive manufacturing and fabrication?including bio-printing, printed electronics, page-wide, drop-on-demand, desktop and continuous ink jet, toner-based systems, and production digital printing, as well as the engineering capability, optimization, and science involved in these fields. In 2016, the conference changed its name formally to Printing for Fabrication to better reflect the content of the meeting and the evolving technology of printing.

    Please note: For purposes of its Digital Library content, IS&T defines Open Access as papers that will be downloadable in their entirety for free in perpetuity. Copyright restrictions on papers vary; see individual paper for details.

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