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Application of Scanning Transmission X-ray microscopy for observation of organic compounds in toner particles

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Toners for copy machines, printers, etc. are constructed of several kinds of resin, pigment, wax and other components. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has been used to study the dispersion of components in toners, but TEM imaging cannot easily distinguish various kinds of materials in toners. Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy (STXM) is a synchrotron-based analytical microscopy that uses carbon 1s near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) to identify organic compounds at sub-50 nm spatial resolution. The observation of toner particles and organic compounds was carried out by a STXM at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) in Berkeley, CA, U.S.A. Although staining methods made the TEM observation of wax possible, carbon black could not be observed simultaneously, STXM provides simultaneous observation of both species. Furthermore STXM can distinguish chemical components that have very similar NEXAFS and provide information on the dispersion of pigments by selected X-ray energy imaging. These results demonstrate the high capability of STXM to investigate the dispersion of organic compounds, thus aiding efforts for developing new, well-controlled toner.
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Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: 01 January 2007

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  • For more than 30 years, IS&T's series of digital printing conferences have been the leading forum for discussion of advances and new directions in 2D and 3D printing technologies. A comprehensive, industry-wide conference that brings together industry and academia, this meeting includes all aspects of the hardware, materials, software, images, and applications associated with digital printing systems?particularly those involved with additive manufacturing and fabrication?including bio-printing, printed electronics, page-wide, drop-on-demand, desktop and continuous ink jet, toner-based systems, and production digital printing, as well as the engineering capability, optimization, and science involved in these fields. In 2016, the conference changed its name formally to Printing for Fabrication to better reflect the content of the meeting and the evolving technology of printing.

    Please note: For purposes of its Digital Library content, IS&T defines Open Access as papers that will be downloadable in their entirety for free in perpetuity. Copyright restrictions on papers vary; see individual paper for details.

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