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Numerical Simulation of Toner Movement in a Transfer Process

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A three-dimensional calculation of toner movement in a transfer region is carried out and toner scattering is simulated. This simulation includes an electric field calculation between two parallel plates and a calculation of toner movement. In order to estimate a force on a toner particle precisely, an electric field created by electrodes and surface charges, repulsive force of toner particles, mirror images of toner charges, a discharge phenomenon and toner adhesions are considered. A toner particle separates from the upper plate and begins to move downward when a transfer force overcomes the sum of the mirror force and the adhesion force. Movement of a toner particle is calculated according to Newton's motion law. From the simulation result, toner detachment happens before a discharge in a non-image region occurs. Because of the repulsive force and jumping the air gap, toner scattering happens and satellites are formed on the lower plate. In order to investigate toner scattering, a model experiment is carried out and is compared with the simulation. The number of satellites is compared between simulation and experiment, and the comparison shows good coincidence. This comparison confirms that this simulation model is useful for calculating toner movement in a transfer process. The model experiment and simulation indicates that toner scattering happens before discharges and the cause of toner scattering is mainly Coulomb's force.
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Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: 2005-01-01

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  • For more than 30 years, IS&T's series of digital printing conferences have been the leading forum for discussion of advances and new directions in 2D and 3D printing technologies. A comprehensive, industry-wide conference that brings together industry and academia, this meeting includes all aspects of the hardware, materials, software, images, and applications associated with digital printing systems?particularly those involved with additive manufacturing and fabrication?including bio-printing, printed electronics, page-wide, drop-on-demand, desktop and continuous ink jet, toner-based systems, and production digital printing, as well as the engineering capability, optimization, and science involved in these fields. In 2016, the conference changed its name formally to Printing for Fabrication to better reflect the content of the meeting and the evolving technology of printing.

    Please note: For purposes of its Digital Library content, IS&T defines Open Access as papers that will be downloadable in their entirety for free in perpetuity. Copyright restrictions on papers vary; see individual paper for details.

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