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Quantification of Toner Aging in Two Component Development Systems

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Xerographic toners are typically blended with additives for adhesion control in development and transfer processes. 10-100 nanometer size additives on toner surface are used to space toners away from the electrode surfaces which lower the adhesion forces. However, in a developer housing, additives get buried into the toner over time due to the repeated mechanical stresses encountered. This is referred to as toner aging. Aged toners can have significantly higher adhesion forces and often perform poorly in development and transfer. In this paper, we will discuss models for estimating the surface additive coverage distribution on toners in the developer housing and its impact of development and transfer performance.
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Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: 01 January 2005

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  • For more than 30 years, IS&T's series of digital printing conferences have been the leading forum for discussion of advances and new directions in 2D and 3D printing technologies. A comprehensive, industry-wide conference that brings together industry and academia, this meeting includes all aspects of the hardware, materials, software, images, and applications associated with digital printing systems?particularly those involved with additive manufacturing and fabrication?including bio-printing, printed electronics, page-wide, drop-on-demand, desktop and continuous ink jet, toner-based systems, and production digital printing, as well as the engineering capability, optimization, and science involved in these fields. In 2016, the conference changed its name formally to Printing for Fabrication to better reflect the content of the meeting and the evolving technology of printing.

    Please note: For purposes of its Digital Library content, IS&T defines Open Access as papers that will be downloadable in their entirety for free in perpetuity. Copyright restrictions on papers vary; see individual paper for details.

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