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Quantification of Toner Aging in Two Component Development Systems

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Xerographic toners are typically blended with additives for adhesion control in development and transfer processes. 10-100 nanometer size additives on toner surface are used to space toners away from the electrode surfaces which lower the adhesion forces. However, in a developer housing, additives get buried into the toner over time due to the repeated mechanical stresses encountered. This is referred to as toner aging. Aged toners can have significantly higher adhesion forces and often perform poorly in development and transfer. In this paper, we will discuss models for estimating the surface additive coverage distribution on toners in the developer housing and its impact of development and transfer performance.

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: January 1, 2005

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  • For more than 25 years, NIP has been the leading forum for discussion of advances and new directions in non-impact and digital printing technologies. A comprehensive, industry-wide conference, this meeting includes all aspects of the hardware, materials, software, images, and applications associated with digital printing systems, including drop-on-demand ink jet, wide format ink jet, desktop and continuous ink jet, toner-based electrophotographic printers, production digital printing systems, and thermal printing systems, as well as the engineering capability, optimization, and science involved in these fields.

    Since 2005, NIP has been held in conjunction with the Digital Fabrication Conference.

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