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Improvements in Toner Fines Characterization

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The extreme size selectivity of the toning process presents a unique challenge of preparing toners with minimal fines. The Coulter Counter technique has been standard for characterizing toners because its ability to discriminate fines levels. The advent of chemically prepared toner with no fines and processes such as multiple classification steps in ground toners has revealed needed improvements in the characterization method. Dispersion stability and count rate were found to have the opposite effects on the measured fines level. A simple modification was discovered that could overcome the artifact of recounting coarse particles as fines due to turbulence inside the aperture tube. Investigation using this modification found that a simple mathematical model with one tuned parameter for each aperture size could be applied to simulate the modification.

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: 2005-01-01

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  • For more than 30 years, IS&T's series of digital printing conferences have been the leading forum for discussion of advances and new directions in 2D and 3D printing technologies. A comprehensive, industry-wide conference that brings together industry and academia, this meeting includes all aspects of the hardware, materials, software, images, and applications associated with digital printing systems?particularly those involved with additive manufacturing and fabrication?including bio-printing, printed electronics, page-wide, drop-on-demand, desktop and continuous ink jet, toner-based systems, and production digital printing, as well as the engineering capability, optimization, and science involved in these fields. In 2016, the conference changed its name formally to Printing for Fabrication to better reflect the content of the meeting and the evolving technology of printing.

    Please note: For purposes of its Digital Library content, IS&T defines Open Access as papers that will be downloadable in their entirety for free in perpetuity. Copyright restrictions on papers vary; see individual paper for details.

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