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Contour Mapping of Readability of Hardcopies on the Plane of Optical Density: Characters and Background -A Guideline for Designing Electronic Paper-

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Readability of hardcopies as determined by image density was evaluated for the purpose of clarifying the goal of readable Electronic Paper. Subjective evaluations were carried out on the readability of hardcopies whose characters and background has various combinations of optical densities. Evaluated results are summarized as a contour map of readability on the plane of optical density: characters and background. Two conventional ways of calculating contrast ratio (OD ratio and reflectance ratio) were evaluated using the mapped values. It is confirmed that equal contrast lines as determined by OD ratio show better agreement with the contour line of readability than those based on the reflectance ratio.
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Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: 01 January 2004

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  • For more than 30 years, IS&T's series of digital printing conferences have been the leading forum for discussion of advances and new directions in 2D and 3D printing technologies. A comprehensive, industry-wide conference that brings together industry and academia, this meeting includes all aspects of the hardware, materials, software, images, and applications associated with digital printing systems?particularly those involved with additive manufacturing and fabrication?including bio-printing, printed electronics, page-wide, drop-on-demand, desktop and continuous ink jet, toner-based systems, and production digital printing, as well as the engineering capability, optimization, and science involved in these fields. In 2016, the conference changed its name formally to Printing for Fabrication to better reflect the content of the meeting and the evolving technology of printing.

    Please note: For purposes of its Digital Library content, IS&T defines Open Access as papers that will be downloadable in their entirety for free in perpetuity. Copyright restrictions on papers vary; see individual paper for details.

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