Skip to main content

Extrinsic Signatures Embedding Using Exposure Modulation for Information Hiding and Secure Printing in Electrophotography

Buy Article:

$20.00 plus tax (Refund Policy)


Banding is one of the image artifacts for electrophotographic (EP) printers. Due to its origin within the EP process, it can also be viewed as an intrinsic signature of the specific printer. Modulating the EP process to generate banding signals that are below the human visual threshold but can be detected by effective detection approach can further extend the signature capacity. This deliberate banding signal can be viewed as extrinsic signature of a printer. Since modulating the printing process provides significant barrier of entry, it is effective in limiting the attack possibilities and can be an effective method to embed needed information regarding the document and the device it was printed on to provide unprecedented forensic information. One of the key issues with embedding extrinsic signature is the information should not be detectable by the human observer. However, the signature needs to be detectable by a suitable detection algorithm. In this paper, we will propose one method to modulate the exposure of the EP process to embed controlled quasi-periodic signature into a document. Based on the system level modeling and experimental verification of the EP process, machine detectable signatures that are below the human visual threshold can be embedded into a printed document without any perceivable degradation in image quality. Preliminary experiment results confirm our hypothesis that with properly designed control techniques, effective extrinsic signatures can be embedded into a document.

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: January 1, 2004

More about this publication?
  • For more than 25 years, NIP has been the leading forum for discussion of advances and new directions in non-impact and digital printing technologies. A comprehensive, industry-wide conference, this meeting includes all aspects of the hardware, materials, software, images, and applications associated with digital printing systems, including drop-on-demand ink jet, wide format ink jet, desktop and continuous ink jet, toner-based electrophotographic printers, production digital printing systems, and thermal printing systems, as well as the engineering capability, optimization, and science involved in these fields.

    Since 2005, NIP has been held in conjunction with the Digital Fabrication Conference.

  • Information for Authors
  • Submit a Paper
  • Subscribe to this Title
  • Membership Information
  • Terms & Conditions
  • Ingenta Connect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites

Access Key

Free Content
Free content
New Content
New content
Open Access Content
Open access content
Subscribed Content
Subscribed content
Free Trial Content
Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more