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Extrinsic Signatures Embedding Using Exposure Modulation for Information Hiding and Secure Printing in Electrophotography

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Banding is one of the image artifacts for electrophotographic (EP) printers. Due to its origin within the EP process, it can also be viewed as an intrinsic signature of the specific printer. Modulating the EP process to generate banding signals that are below the human visual threshold but can be detected by effective detection approach can further extend the signature capacity. This deliberate banding signal can be viewed as extrinsic signature of a printer. Since modulating the printing process provides significant barrier of entry, it is effective in limiting the attack possibilities and can be an effective method to embed needed information regarding the document and the device it was printed on to provide unprecedented forensic information. One of the key issues with embedding extrinsic signature is the information should not be detectable by the human observer. However, the signature needs to be detectable by a suitable detection algorithm. In this paper, we will propose one method to modulate the exposure of the EP process to embed controlled quasi-periodic signature into a document. Based on the system level modeling and experimental verification of the EP process, machine detectable signatures that are below the human visual threshold can be embedded into a printed document without any perceivable degradation in image quality. Preliminary experiment results confirm our hypothesis that with properly designed control techniques, effective extrinsic signatures can be embedded into a document.
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Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: 2004-01-01

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  • For more than 30 years, IS&T's series of digital printing conferences have been the leading forum for discussion of advances and new directions in 2D and 3D printing technologies. A comprehensive, industry-wide conference that brings together industry and academia, this meeting includes all aspects of the hardware, materials, software, images, and applications associated with digital printing systems?particularly those involved with additive manufacturing and fabrication?including bio-printing, printed electronics, page-wide, drop-on-demand, desktop and continuous ink jet, toner-based systems, and production digital printing, as well as the engineering capability, optimization, and science involved in these fields. In 2016, the conference changed its name formally to Printing for Fabrication to better reflect the content of the meeting and the evolving technology of printing.

    Please note: For purposes of its Digital Library content, IS&T defines Open Access as papers that will be downloadable in their entirety for free in perpetuity. Copyright restrictions on papers vary; see individual paper for details.

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