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Analysis of Spreading of Individual Toner Particles and Levelling of Toner Layers

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In the fusing of electrophotographic prints, the spreading and coalescence of individual toner particles and levelling of films are driven by surface tension and determine the optical parameters of dot gain and gloss as well as print adhesion. In this study a laboratory method has been developed to monitor in-situ the spreading of individual toner particles during heating, and extract the corresponding evolution in particle diameter and contact angle. This method was employed to study different toner particles as a function of temperature, heating rate, and substrate surface energy. Significant differences in spreading extent and rate for the different toner particles were observed, especially on higher energy surfaces, and explained in terms of their dispersive and polar interactions.

This study was combined with Xeikon printing trials using systematic variations in the fusing type and degree. The prints were analysed with interferometric profilometry to quantify the response of toner layer thickness and surface topography to the fusing conditions. In particular, spectral decomposition of surface roughness revealed interesting correlations to print gloss.
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Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: 2004-01-01

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  • For more than 30 years, IS&T's series of digital printing conferences have been the leading forum for discussion of advances and new directions in 2D and 3D printing technologies. A comprehensive, industry-wide conference that brings together industry and academia, this meeting includes all aspects of the hardware, materials, software, images, and applications associated with digital printing systems?particularly those involved with additive manufacturing and fabrication?including bio-printing, printed electronics, page-wide, drop-on-demand, desktop and continuous ink jet, toner-based systems, and production digital printing, as well as the engineering capability, optimization, and science involved in these fields. In 2016, the conference changed its name formally to Printing for Fabrication to better reflect the content of the meeting and the evolving technology of printing.

    Please note: For purposes of its Digital Library content, IS&T defines Open Access as papers that will be downloadable in their entirety for free in perpetuity. Copyright restrictions on papers vary; see individual paper for details.

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