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Techniques for Identifying and Analyzing Banding Sources in the Electrophotographic Process

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Many steps in the electrophotographic process can contribute to density oscillations in the process direction. Line spacing variation has been discussed as a contributor to density variations in great detail in the past. This paper focuses on sources other than line spacing variations and describes techniques used for identification and analysis. The sensitivity of the process to the mechanical runout of the rollers involved was investigated as well as the sensitivity to speed variations in the drive systems. Mechanical vibration or oscillation as well as electrical oscillations were studied. It could be demonstrated how beats between frequencies outside the visible spectrum can cause visible density variations. Low frequency density oscillations with cycle periods of several centimeters might not be visible to the human observer as banding but can cause process control oscillations and color inconsistency. Analysis methods for improving the frequency resolution necessary to identify these oscillations are shown together with other evaluation techniques.

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: 2003-01-01

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  • For more than 30 years, IS&T's series of digital printing conferences have been the leading forum for discussion of advances and new directions in 2D and 3D printing technologies. A comprehensive, industry-wide conference that brings together industry and academia, this meeting includes all aspects of the hardware, materials, software, images, and applications associated with digital printing systems?particularly those involved with additive manufacturing and fabrication?including bio-printing, printed electronics, page-wide, drop-on-demand, desktop and continuous ink jet, toner-based systems, and production digital printing, as well as the engineering capability, optimization, and science involved in these fields. In 2016, the conference changed its name formally to Printing for Fabrication to better reflect the content of the meeting and the evolving technology of printing.

    Please note: For purposes of its Digital Library content, IS&T defines Open Access as papers that will be downloadable in their entirety for free in perpetuity. Copyright restrictions on papers vary; see individual paper for details.

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